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  1. Content type: Protocol

    Actinic keratoses (AK) are common precancerous lesions of the skin due to cumulative sun exposure. A variety of interventions are available for the treatment; however, the majority of randomised controlled tri...

    Authors: Theresa Steeb, Markus V. Heppt, Lars Becker, Christoph Kohl, Lars E. French and Carola Berking

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:237

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  2. Content type: Protocol

    Over the past decades, survival rates of children born with congenital heart disease (CHD) have increased dramatically. Progress in prenatal diagnosis, less-invasive catheter techniques and perioperative inten...

    Authors: Maria Feldmann, Cinzia Ullrich, Célina Bataillard, Walter Knirsch, Martina A. Gosteli-Peter, Beatrice Latal and Ulrike Held

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:236

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  3. Content type: Protocol

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) causes significant morbidity and mortality in humans, and there are currently no effective treatments to enhance renal recovery. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short chain nucleotides that re...

    Authors: Sarah Zankar, Rosendo A. Rodriguez, Jose Luis Vinas and Kevin D. Burns

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:235

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  4. Content type: Protocol

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is burgeoning as a global chronic health condition. Some studies suggest that tuberculosis (TB) can even cause diabetes in those not previously known to be diabetic, which as a corollary...

    Authors: Sonia Menon, Joel Francis, Natasha Zdraveska, Alfred Dusabimana and Samit Bhattacharyya

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:234

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  5. Content type: Correction

    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors opted to correct the following reference on page 3:

    Authors: Yannish Naik, Peter Baker, Ian Walker, Taavi Tillmann, Kristin Bash, Darryl Quantz, Frances Hillier-Brown and Clare Bambra

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:233

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    The original article was published in Systematic Reviews 2017 6:222

  6. Content type: Protocol

    Falling is the most common accident of daily living and the second most prevalent cause of accidental death in the world. The complex nature of risk factors associated with falling makes those at risk amongst ...

    Authors: Flavien Quijoux, Aliénor Vienne-Jumeau, François Bertin-Hugault, Marie Lefèvre, Philippe Zawieja, Pierre-Paul Vidal and Damien Ricard

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:232

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  7. Content type: Protocol

    A growing number of older adults experience mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Recent technological advances allow for traditional cognitive interventions to be administered via computers and other ...

    Authors: Abdullah Al Mahmud, Reneta Slikboer, Jennifer Stargatt and Sunil Bhar

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:231

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  8. Content type: Protocol

    Heavy episodic drinking (HED) refers to alcohol consumption that exceeds the recommended threshold for a given episode and increases risk for diverse negative alcohol-related consequences. A pattern of weekly ...

    Authors: Tashia D. Petker, Jillian Halladay, Lana Vedelago, Mark A. Ferro, Jalie Tucker, Mark S. Goldman, James G. Murphy and James MacKillop

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:230

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  9. Content type: Protocol

    Persistent levels of low-grade inflammation and T lymphocyte activation are associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes that eventually lead to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Interestin...

    Authors: Vuyolwethu Mxinwa, Tawanda M. Nyambuya, Phiwayinkosi V. Dludla and Bongani B. Nkambule

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:229

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  10. Content type: Protocol

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are life-threatening complications of diabetes mellitus which require prompt treatment with large volume crystalloid fluid administration....

    Authors: Benjamin Gershkovich, Shane W. English, Mary-Anne Doyle, Kusum Menon and Lauralyn McIntyre

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:228

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  11. Content type: Protocol

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major public health problem worldwide. It is characterized by the increased concentration of glucose in the blood and leads to damage of the body system, especially blood v...

    Authors: Thanitsara Rittiphairoj, Krit Pongpirul, Noel T. Mueller and Tianjing Li

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:227

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  12. Content type: Methodology

    Results of medical tests are the main source to inform clinical decision making. The main information to assess the usefulness of medical tests for correct discrimination of patients are accuracy measures. For...

    Authors: Tim Mathes and Dawid Pieper

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:226

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  13. Content type: Protocol

    Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in children is a major challenge with up to 94% of children with TB treated empirically in TB high-burden countries. Paediatric tuberculosis (PTB) remains a major cause of morbidity...

    Authors: Emmanuel O. Babafemi, Benny P. Cherian, Betty Ouma and Gilbert Mogoko

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:225

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  14. Content type: Protocol

    Impacts of early childhood development (ECD) interventions (such as fostering attachment and responsiveness through communication, play and stimulation) are well known. Globally, there is increasing recognitio...

    Authors: Karen M. Edmond, Natalie A. Strobel, Claire Adams and Dan McAullay

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:224

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  15. Content type: Protocol

    Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is one of the major sources of exposure in urban areas and has been associated with a wide range of adverse human health effects. Much of the Canadian population is regular...

    Authors: Carlyn J. Matz, Marika Egyed, Robyn Hocking, Shayesta Seenundun, Nick Charman and Nigel Edmonds

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:223

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  16. Content type: Protocol

    Cognitive changes associated with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia can lead to difficulties in completing instrumental activities of daily living. The ability to live independently at home and in the...

    Authors: Nikki Tulliani, Michelle Bissett, Rosalind Bye, Katrina Chaudhary, Paul Fahey and Karen P. Y. Liu

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:222

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  17. Content type: Protocol

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the arrhythmia most commonly diagnosed in clinical practice. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prevalence of AF and complications of AF, estimated by hospit...

    Authors: Janine Dretzke, Naomi Chuchu, Winnie Chua, Larissa Fabritz, Susan Bayliss, Dipak Kotecha, Jonathan J. Deeks, Paulus Kirchhof and Yemisi Takwoingi

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:221

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  18. Content type: Protocol

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the leading cause of work disability and sickness absence worldwide. The prevalence of MSDs increases with age, consequently challenging sustainable employability among the...

    Authors: Karina Glies Vincents Seeberg, Lars Louis Andersen, Elizabeth Bengtsen and Emil Sundstrup

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:219

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  19. Content type: Protocol

    Hyperglycemia in pregnancy (HIP) has been recently differentiated between diabetes in pregnancy (DIP) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The proposed protocol is relevant, and clinical concern is due to ...

    Authors: Bianca Fioravanti Nicolosi, Debora F. Leite, Jussara Mayrink, Renato T. Souza, José Guilherme Cecatti and Iracema de Mattos Paranhos Calderon

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:218

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  20. Content type: Protocol

    Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer with 11.6% of the total cases attributable to lung cancer. It is currently the leading cause of death among cancer-related deaths worldwide. This is a major pu...

    Authors: Siyabonga B. Dlamini, Benn Sartorius and Themba Ginindza

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:217

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  21. Content type: Protocol

    To inform recommendations by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care by systematically reviewing direct evidence on the effectiveness and acceptability of screening adults 40 years and older in prima...

    Authors: Michelle Gates, Jennifer Pillay, Guylène Thériault, Heather Limburg, Roland Grad, Scott Klarenbach, Christina Korownyk, Donna Reynolds, John J. Riva, Brett D. Thombs, Gregory A. Kline, William D. Leslie, Susan Courage, Ben Vandermeer, Robin Featherstone and Lisa Hartling

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:216

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  22. Content type: Protocol

    Osteoarthritis is a debilitating condition as well as a growing global health problem, and total knee arthroplasty is an effective treatment for advanced stages of disease. Unplanned 30-day hospital readmissio...

    Authors: Daniel Gould, Michelle Dowsey, Tim Spelman, Imkyeong Jo, Wassif Kabir, Jason Trieu and Peter Choong

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:215

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  23. Content type: Protocol

    Acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D) during hospitalization is associated with both in-hospital and post-discharge mortality. Its incidence has risen over time in Canada and the USA. While the majori...

    Authors: Carol Wang, Swapnil Hiremath, Lindsey Sikora, Manish M. Sood, Jennifer Kong and Edward Clark

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:214

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  24. Content type: Protocol

    Historically, individual doctors were responsible for maintaining their own professional competence. More recently, changing patient expectations, debate about the appropriateness of professional self-regulati...

    Authors: Anél Wiese, Emer Galvin, Charlotte Merrett, Irina Korotchikova, Dubhfeasa Slattery, Lucia Prihodova, Hilary Hoey, Ann O’Shaughnessy, Jantze Cotter, Janet O’Farrell, Mary Horgan and Deirdre Bennett

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:213

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  25. Content type: Protocol

    Thrombotic microangiopathy is an uncommon complication of snake envenoming associated with a subset of snakebite cases presenting with venom-induced consumption coagulopathy. It presents with microangiopathic ...

    Authors: Tina Noutsos, Bart J. Currie and Geoffrey K. Isbister

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:212

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  26. Content type: Protocol

    A growing body of literature indicates that, worldwide, immigrants experience health deterioration after their arrival into their adopted country, and moreover, they have lower vitamin D compared to the native...

    Authors: Said Yousef, Jesse Elliott, Douglas Manuel, Ian Colman, Manny Papadimitropoulos, Alomgir Hossain, Nathalie Leclair and George A. Wells

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:211

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  27. Content type: Protocol

    Several individual epidemiological studies in Ethiopia suggest that syphilis is a public health problem. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no synthesized and meta-analysis data on the epidemiolog...

    Authors: Kindie Mitiku Kebede, Dejene Derseh Abateneh, Alemayehu Sayih Belay and Gizachew Ayele Manaye

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:210

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  28. Content type: Protocol

    Insufficient iodine intake in pregnancy is associated with many adverse pregnancy outcomes. About 90% of African countries are at risk of iodine deficiency due to poor soils and dietary goitrogens. Pregnancy p...

    Authors: Charles Bitamazire Businge, Benjamin Longo-Mbenza and Andre Pascal Kengne

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:209

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  29. Content type: Protocol

    Neuropathic pain affects 7–10% of people, but responds poorly to pharmacotherapy, indicating a need for better treatments. Mechanistic research on neuropathic pain frequently uses human surrogate models of the...

    Authors: Victoria J. Madden, Gillian J. Bedwell, Prince C. Chikezie, Andrew S. C. Rice and Peter R. Kamerman

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:208

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  30. Content type: Research

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection poses a significant burden to public health worldwide. Most cases are clinically silent until late in the disease course. The main goal of current therapy is to improve surv...

    Authors: William W. L. Wong, Petros Pechivanoglou, Josephine Wong, Joanna M. Bielecki, Alex Haines, Aysegul Erman, Yasmin Saeed, Arcturus Phoon, Mina Tadrous, Mona Younis, Noha Z. Rayad, Valeria Rac, Harry L. A. Janssen and Murray D. Krahn

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:207

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  31. Content type: Protocol

    Due to the worldwide rise in cancer incidence, and therefore the rise in the need for antineoplastic chemotherapy, it is important for both healthcare professionals and patients alike that the side effects of ...

    Authors: Ruan Nilton Rodrigues Melo, Stephanie Carolina Francisco, Caroline de Castro Moura, Kirsty Loudon, Namie Okino Sawada, Érika de Cássia Lopes Chaves, Tânia Couto Machado Chianca, Denismar Alves Nogueira, Si Jia Zhu and Ana Cláudia Mesquita Garcia

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:206

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  32. Content type: Protocol

    About 5.8 million maternal deaths, neonatal deaths and stillbirths occur every year with 99% of them taking place in low- and middle-income countries. Two thirds of them could be prevented through cost-effecti...

    Authors: Rejina Gurung, Nabila Zaka, Shyam Sundar Budhathoki, Avinash K. Sunny, Jeevan Thapa, Hong Zhou and Ashish KC

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:205

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  33. Content type: Protocol

    Cataract is the leading cause of blindness and low vision worldwide. Presently, cataract surgery is the only treatment for cataract and is very effective in restoring sight. In cataract surgery, the natural le...

    Authors: Shalu Jain, Kavitha Rajshekar, Anjana Aggarwal, Akshay Chauhan and Vijay Kumar Gauba

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:204

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  34. Content type: Protocol

    Evidence shows that the implementation of optimal post-arrest care significantly increases survival and functional outcomes among patients who experience an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). However, diff...

    Authors: Morgan Slater, Victoria M. Sparrow-Downes, Precilla Veigas, Joanna M. Bielecki and Valeria E. Rac

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:203

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  35. Content type: Protocol

    The way pain is remembered and reported can affect medical decisions taken by patients and health-care professionals. Memory of pain has been investigated extensively for the past few decades; however, the res...

    Authors: Wacław M. Adamczyk, Dominika Farley, Karolina Wiercioch-Kuzianik, Elżbieta A. Bajcar, Ewa Buglewicz, Jakub Nastaj, Aleksandra Gruszka and Przemysław Bąbel

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:201

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  36. Content type: Research

    Obesity is a cardiovascular disease risk factor. Conventional weight loss (CWL) programmes focus on weight loss, however ‘health, not weight loss, focused’ (HNWL) programmes concentrate on improved health and ...

    Authors: Nazanin Khasteganan, Deborah Lycett, Gill Furze and Andy P. Turner

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:200

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  37. Content type: Protocol

    Whiplash is a common traumatic cervical injury which is most often a consequence of rear-end motor vehicle accidents. It has been estimated that up to 50% of the whiplash patients suffer from chronic symptoms,...

    Authors: Aidin Abedi, C. A. C. Prinsen, Ishan Shah, Zorica Buser and Jeffrey C. Wang

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:199

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  38. Content type: Protocol

    Psychological violence is estimated to be the most common form of intimate partner violence (IPV). Despite this, research on the independent effect of psychological violence on mental health is scarce. Moreove...

    Authors: Sarah Dokkedahl, Robin Niels Kok, Siobhan Murphy, Trine Rønde Kristensen, Ditte Bech-Hansen and Ask Elklit

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:198

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  39. Content type: Protocol

    One of the most challenging health problems is liver disease, which can be caused by medications, toxic substances, and excessive consumption of alcohol. Liver problems can be also caused by infections, autoim...

    Authors: Willy Tambwe Muzumbukilwa, Mukanda Gedeon Kadima, Manimbulu Nlooto and Peter Mark Oroma Owira

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:197

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  40. Content type: Protocol

    Non-specific low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Acute LBP usually has a good prognosis, with rapid improvement within the first 6 weeks. However, the majority of patients develop...

    Authors: Silvia Gianola, Greta Castellini, Anita Andreano, Davide Corbetta, Pamela Frigerio, Valentina Pecoraro, Valentina Redaelli, Andrea Tettamanti, Andrea Turolla, Lorenzo Moja and Maria Grazia Valsecchi

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:196

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  41. Content type: Protocol

    Isotonic crystalloid fluid bolus therapy is used in critically ill children to restore or maintain hemodynamic stability. However, the ideal choice of crystalloid remains to be determined. The most easily avai...

    Authors: Anab Rebecca Lehr, Soha Rached-d’Astous, Melissa Parker, Lauralyn McIntyre, Margaret Sampson, Jemila Hamid and Kusum Menon

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:195

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  42. Content type: Protocol

    Strategies to improve the effectiveness and quality of health and care have predominantly emphasised the implementation of new research and evidence into service organisation and delivery. A parallel, but less...

    Authors: Christopher Burton, Lynne Williams, Tracey Bucknall, Stephen Edwards, Denise Fisher, Beth Hall, Gill Harris, Peter Jones, Matthew Makin, Anne McBride, Rachel Meacock, John Parkinson, Jo Rycroft-Malone and Justin Waring

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:194

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  43. Content type: Protocol

    Human resource for health (HRH) challenges jeopardise the South African health system, undermining the efforts made to curb the burden of disease. There is a demand for a category of health workers, which will...

    Authors: Euphemia Mbali Mhlongo and Elizabeth Lutge

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:193

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  44. Content type: Protocol

    Pedestrians’ unsafe crossing behavior exposes them at risk of trauma and death and puts a tremendous burden on the health care system. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is one of the leading theoretical mod...

    Authors: Mahdi Moshki, Abdoljavad Khajavi, Fatemeh Sadeghi-Ghyassi, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani and Saeid Pour-Doulati

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:192

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  45. Content type: Protocol

    Experiencing a lower limb amputation (LLA) or spinal cord injury (SCI) is a life-changing event, affecting physical and systemic function as well as having psychological and social impacts. However, the severi...

    Authors: Matthew Young, Carly McKay, Sean Williams, Peter Rouse and James L. J. Bilzon

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:191

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  46. Content type: Research

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer. More than 80% of those diagnosed with cervical cancer live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The World Health Organization recommends vac...

    Authors: Hakan Safaralilo Foss, Ann Oldervoll, Atle Fretheim, Claire Glenton and Simon Lewin

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:190

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  47. Content type: Protocol

    South Asia has one of the largest proportions of undernourished children in the world, especially stunting, wasting, and underweight as well as micronutrient deficiencies such as the deficiency of iron, vitami...

    Authors: Nidhi Wali, Kingsley Agho and Andre M. N. Renzaho

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2019 8:189

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