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  1. Sedation is an important consideration in the care of the neurocritically ill patient. It provides anxiety and relief, facilitates procedures and nursing tasks, and minimizes intolerance of mechanical ventilat...

    Authors: Alexandre Tran, Henrietta Blinder, Brian Hutton and Shane English
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:154
  2. Delirium is characterized by acute changes in mental status including inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered level of consciousness, and is highly prevalent in critically ill adults. Delirium has adve...

    Authors: L.D. Burry, B. Hutton, M. Guenette, D. Williamson, S. Mehta, I. Egerod, S. Kanji, N.K. Adhikari, D. Moher, C.M. Martin and L. Rose
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:153
  3. Viscoelastic tests, including thromboelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), provide a global assessment of haemostatic function at the point of care. The use of a TEG or ROTEM system to ...

    Authors: Kate Elizabeth McCrossin, David Edmund Piers Bramley, Elizabeth Hessian, Evelyn Hutcheon and Georgina Imberger
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:151
  4. Pressure ulcers are a serious, common, lifelong, and costly secondary complication of spinal cord injury (SCI). Community-dwelling people with a SCI can prevent them with appropriate skin care (i.e. pressure r...

    Authors: Justine Baron, Jillian Swaine, J. Presseau, Arlene Aspinall, Susan Jaglal, Barry White, Dalton Wolfe and Jeremy Grimshaw
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:150
  5. In term infants, there is evidence that early complementary feeding is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Therefore, timely introduction of complementary feeding during infancy is necessary. The World Health...

    Authors: Karin M. Vissers, Edith J. M. Feskens, Johannes B. van Goudoever and Arieke J. Janse
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:149
  6. This systematic review evaluated St. John’s wort (SJW) for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The objectives of this review are to (1) evaluate the efficacy and safety of SJW in adults with MDD ...

    Authors: Eric A. Apaydin, Alicia R. Maher, Roberta Shanman, Marika S. Booth, Jeremy N. V. Miles, Melony E. Sorbero and Susanne Hempel
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:148
  7. ‘Exercise’ is universally recommended as a core treatment for knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA). However, there are very few head-to-head comparative trials to determine the relative efficacy between different ...

    Authors: Siew-Li Goh, Monica S. M. Persson, Archan Bhattacharya, Michelle Hall, Michael Doherty and Weiya Zhang
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:147
  8. Chronic conditions are increasingly more common and negatively impact quality of life, disability, morbidity, and mortality. Health coaching has emerged as a possible intervention to help individuals with chro...

    Authors: Kasey R. Boehmer, Suzette Barakat, Sangwoo Ahn, Larry J. Prokop, Patricia J. Erwin and M. Hassan Murad
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:146
  9. Phantom limb pain (PLP) is characterized by the anatomical shifting of neighbouring somatosensory and motor areas into a deafferented cortical area of the brain contralateral to the amputated limb. It has been...

    Authors: Katleho Limakatso, Lieselotte Corten and Romy Parker
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:145
  10. The parameters of the optic disc and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) in premature children may vary with disease processes that contribute to visual impairment and blindness and so could be use...

    Authors: Alexandra L. Creavin, Cathy E. M. Williams, Kate Tilling, Karen Luyt, Nicholas Timpson and Julian P. T. Higgins
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:144
  11. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of routine MRI surveillance to detect tumour recurrence in children with no new neurological signs or symptoms compared with alternative follow-up practices, inclu...

    Authors: Caroline Main, Simon P. Stevens, Simon Bailey, Robert Phillips, Barry Pizer, Keith Wheatley, Pamela R. Kearns, Martin English, Sophie Wilne and Jayne S. Wilson
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:143
  12. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) are chronic lesions or conditions characterized by a potential for malignant transformation. Apart from being possible pre-cursors to oral cancer, OPMDs themselves ...

    Authors: Zohaib Khan, Sheraz Khan, Lara Christianson, Sara Rehman, Obinna Ekwunife and Florence Samkange-Zeeb
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:142
  13. The rising prevalence of obesity, particularly in childhood, is a global public health emergency. There is some evidence that exposure to non-parental childcare before age 6 years is associated with subsequent...

    Authors: Silvia Costa, Jean Adams, Veronica Phillips and Sara E Benjamin Neelon
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:141
  14. Meta-research studies investigating methods, systems, and processes designed to improve the efficiency of systematic review workflows can contribute to building an evidence base that can help to increase value...

    Authors: Ian Shemilt, Nada Khan, Sophie Park and James Thomas
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:140
  15. With the non-medical use of prescription opioids increasingly becoming a method of abuse in Canada, the number of patients requiring methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid use disorder has increased ...

    Authors: Laura Zielinski, Meha Bhatt, Rebecca B. Eisen, Stefan Perera, Neera Bhatnagar, James MacKillop, Meir Steiner, Stephanie McDermid Vaz, Lehana Thabane and Zainab Samaan
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:139
  16. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of complex interventions in primary health care (PHC) are needed to provide evidence-based programmes to achieve the Declaration of Alma Ata goal of making PHC equitable, ac...

    Authors: Hueiming Liu, Janini Muhunthan, Adina Hayek, Maree Hackett, Tracey-Lea Laba, David Peiris and Stephen Jan
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:138
  17. Many interventions have been implemented to improve maternal health outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Currently, however, systematic information on the effectiveness of these interventions remains scarce. ...

    Authors: Frederick M. Wekesah, Chidozie E. Mbada, Adamson S. Muula, Caroline W. Kabiru, Stella K. Muthuri and Chimaraoke O. Izugbara
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:137
  18. With the accumulation of evidence regarding potential harms of cancer screening in recent years, researchers, policy-makers, and the public are becoming more critical of population-based cancer screening. Cons...

    Authors: Brianne Wood, Susan Rogers Van Katwyk, Ziad El-Khatib, Susan McFaul, Monica Taljaard, Erica Wright, Ian D. Graham and Julian Little
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:136
  19. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory syndrome characterized by progressive, partially reversible airway obstruction and lung hyperinflation. COPD has a substantial burden which is seen...

    Authors: Christopher Plishka, Thomas Rotter, Leigh Kinsman, Mohammed Rashaad Hansia, Adegboyega Lawal, Donna Goodridge, Erika Penz and Darcy D. Marciniuk
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:135
  20. Diabetic retinopathy is a serious complication of diabetes which, if left untreated, can result in blindness. Population screening among people with diabetes has been shown to be clinically effective; however,...

    Authors: Ella Graham-Rowe, Fabiana Lorencatto, John G. Lawrenson, Jennifer Burr, Jeremy M. Grimshaw, Noah M. Ivers, Tunde Peto, Catey Bunce and Jill J. Francis
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:134
  21. Mesothelin is a membrane-bound glycoprotein. Although the biologic function of mesothelin is not very clear, researchers have found that it plays a role in the survival, proliferation, and migration of tumor c...

    Authors: Mei Wang, Aihua Li, Guangwen Sun, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Susan Reid, Peter J. Lovrics and Lehana Thabane
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:133
  22. To provide evidence synthesis for faster-paced healthcare decision-making, rapid reviews have emerged as a streamlined alternative to standard systematic reviews. In 2012, the Veterans Affairs Evidence-based S...

    Authors: Kim Peterson, Nicole Floyd, Lauren Ferguson, Vivian Christensen and Mark Helfand
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:132
  23. Randomised controlled trials guard against selection bias and therefore offer the fairest way of evaluating healthcare interventions such as medicinal products, devices and services. Recruitment to trials can ...

    Authors: Heidi R. Gardner, Cynthia Fraser, Graeme MacLennan and Shaun Treweek
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:131
  24. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a medical emergency in which sudden occlusion of coronary artery(ies) results in ischemia and necrosis of the cardiac tissues. Reperfusion therapies that aim at reopening t...

    Authors: Chee Yoong Foo, Daniel D. Reidpath and Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:130
  25. The purpose of this study was to advance a checklist of evaluative criteria designed to assess patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures’ developmental measurement properties and applicability, which can be used...

    Authors: David O. Francis, Melissa L. McPheeters, Meaghan Noud, David F. Penson and Irene D. Feurer
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:129
  26. Musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions are the most frequently reported chronic conditions and one of the biggest causes of disability in the UK. Given the ageing population and the impact of these problems, the dem...

    Authors: Kate Button, Fiona Morgan, Helen Hodgson, Alison L. Weightman and Steve Jones
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:128
  27. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in critically ill patients is a well-recognized phenomenon with an incidence as high as 71 %. A number of studies have investigated the association between CMV reactivation a...

    Authors: Philippe Lachance, Justin Chen, Robin Featherstone and Wendy Sligl
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:127
  28. This evidence map describes the volume and focus of Tai Chi research reporting health outcomes. Originally developed as a martial art, Tai Chi is typically taught as a series of slow, low-impact movements that...

    Authors: Michele R. Solloway, Stephanie L. Taylor, Paul G. Shekelle, Isomi M. Miake-Lye, Jessica M. Beroes, Roberta M. Shanman and Susanne Hempel
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:126
  29. There is a lack of systematic and comprehensive evaluations whether food intakes lower or increase risk of chronic diseases. In this network meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies, we aim to evaluate the ...

    Authors: Lukas Schwingshackl, Anna Chaimani, Angela Bechthold, Khalid Iqbal, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Georg Hoffmann, Carolina Schwedhelm, Sabrina Schlesinger and Heiner Boeing
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:125
  30. The aim of this study is to use a systematic review framework to identify and synthesise the evidence on the use of proton beam therapy (PBT) for the treatment of children with CNS tumours and where possible c...

    Authors: Caroline Main, Madhumita Dandapani, Mark Pritchard, Rachel Dodds, Simon P. Stevens, Nicky Thorp, Roger E. Taylor, Keith Wheatley, Barry Pizer, Matthew Morrall, Robert Phillips, Martin English, Pamela R. Kearns, Sophie Wilne and Jayne S. Wilson
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:124
  31. Scientific focus on rugby has increased over the recent years, providing evidence of the physical or physiological characteristics and game-specific skills needed in the sport. Identification of tests commonly...

    Authors: Matthew Chiwaridzo, Gillian D. Ferguson and Bouwien C. M. Smits-Engelsman
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:122
  32. Use of menopausal hormonal therapy (MHT)-containing estrogen and a synthetic progestin is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. It is unclear if progesterone in combination with estrogen carries ...

    Authors: Noor Asi, Khaled Mohammed, Qusay Haydour, Michael R. Gionfriddo, Oscar L. Morey Vargas, Larry J. Prokop, Stephanie S. Faubion and Mohammad Hassan Murad
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:121
  33. Childhood obesity is one of the most serious, global, public health challenges and has adverse health consequences in both the short-and long-term. The purpose of this study is to establish the change in body ...

    Authors: Laura Birch, Rachel Perry, Chris Penfold, Rhona Beynon and Julian Hamilton-Shield
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:120
  34. Older adults with mild dementia are at an increased risk of falls. Preventing those at risk from falling requires complex interventions involving patient-tailored strength- and balance-challenging exercises, h...

    Authors: Vicky Booth, Rowan Harwood, Victoria Hood, Tahir Masud and Philippa Logan
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:119
  35. Vascular damage contributes to the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Increased aortic stiffness measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) is a strong...

    Authors: Rosendo A. Rodriguez, Beverley Shea, Richard Hae and Kevin D. Burns
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:118
  36. Many patients with kidney failure “crash” onto dialysis or initiate dialysis in an unplanned fashion. There are varying definitions, but essentially, a patient is labeled as having a crash dialysis start if he...

    Authors: Amber O. Molnar, Swapnil Hiremath, Pierre A. Brown and Ayub Akbari
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:117
  37. Trial registries were established to combat publication bias by creating a comprehensive and unambiguous record of initiated clinical trials. However, the proliferation of registries and registration policies ...

    Authors: Gert van Valkenhoef, Russell F. Loane and Deborah A. Zarin
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:116
  38. The NHS needs valid information on the safety and effectiveness of healthcare interventions. Cochrane systematic reviews are an important source of this information. Traditionally, Cochrane has attempted to id...

    Authors: Ian Roberts and Katharine Ker
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:115
  39. There is increasing pressure to address the social determinants of health (SDoH) and health inequities through the implementation of culturally acceptable interventions particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)...

    Authors: Ebenezer Owusu-Addo, Andre M.N. Renzaho, Ajay S. Mahal and Ben J. Smith
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:114
  40. Studies show that people with dementia do not receive the same amount of analgesia after a hip or pelvic fracture compared to those without cognitive impairment. However, there is no systematic review that sho...

    Authors: S. Kuske, K. Moschinski, S. Andrich, A. Stephan, I. Gnass, E. Sirsch and A. Icks
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:113
  41. Over the years, family-centered care has evolved as the “gold standard” model for the provision of healthcare services. With the advent of family-centered approach to care comes the inherent need to provide su...

    Authors: Jermaine M. Dambi, Jennifer Jelsma, Tecla Mlambo, Matthew Chiwaridzo, Cathrine Tadyanemhandu, Mildred T. Chikwanha and Lieselotte Corten
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:112
  42. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children and adolescents is increasing. This has spurred the development and publication of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the management of paedia...

    Authors: Dena Zeraatkar, Ahmed Nahari, Pei-Wen Wang, Emily Kearsley, Nicole Falzone, Michael Xu, Laura Banfield, Lehana Thabane and M. Constantine Samaan
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:111
  43. The diagnosis, management, and treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (the “HCV care continuum”) have improved in recent years. People who use drugs (PWUD) have a prevalence of HCV infection from 30 t...

    Authors: Jennifer R. Reed, Ashly E. Jordan, David C. Perlman, Daniel J. Smith and Holly Hagan
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:110
  44. Infant and young child feeding practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding of children under 2 years old, are crucially influenced by parent and family perceptions and experiences. Given the u...

    Authors: Alessandra N. Bazzano, Aiko Kaji, Erica Felker-Kantor, Lisa Saldanha and John Mason
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:109
  45. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a known complication of retinal detachment surgery. It has been postulated that the establishment of PVR involves inflammatory and ischaemic processes. Surgical and cli...

    Authors: Rishika Chaudhary, Janine Dretzke, Robert Scott, Ann Logan and Richard Blanch
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:107
  46. People with bipolar disorder (BD) have a mortality gap of up to 20 years compared to the general population. Physical conditions, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, cause the majority of excess d...

    Authors: Frances J. Kay-Lambkin, Louise Thornton, Julia M. Lappin, Tanya Hanstock, Louisa Sylvia, Felice Jacka, Amanda L. Baker, Michal Berk, Phillip B. Mitchell, Robin Callister, Naomi Rogers, Stephanie Webster, Simon Dennis, Christopher Oldmeadow, Andrew MacKinnon, Christopher Doran…
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:106
  47. Despite its shortcomings, warfarin is still the most commonly prescribed anticoagulant to prevent thromboembolism in children. In adults, numerous studies confirmed the robust relationship between warfarin mai...

    Authors: Masanobu Takeuchi, Tohru Kobayashi, Leonardo R. Brandão and Shinya Ito
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:105
  48. Cochrane Child Health maintains a register of child-relevant Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) to provide a comprehensive source of high-quality evidence. However, a large number of SRs are published outside o...

    Authors: Lisa Hartling, Kassi Shave, Denise Thomson, Ricardo M. Fernandes, Aireen Wingert and Katrina Williams
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:104

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