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Table 3 Meta-analysis based on several subgroups showing the effect of NSAID administration on bone volume measurements (histomorphometric analysis) of healing bones after fracture

From: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bone healing in animal models—a systematic review and meta-analysis

Histomorphometric
NSAID vs control
Subgroup N SZ
NSAID
SZ
C.
SMD 95% CI P effect(adj. P value) Q statistic P within heterog. I2% P between heterog.
Overall 33 171 115 − 0.16 [− 0.49, 0.17] 0.341 70.55 < 0.001 54.64
Species     
Dogs 2 12 12 NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.026a
Rats a 19 123 79 − 0.50 [− 0.91, − 0.10] 0.013(0.039) 13.26 0.77 0  
Rabbits 12 36 24 0.42 [− 0.14, 0.98] 0.143(0.143) 19.18 0.058 42.65  
Sex
Female 6 44 43 − 0.14 [− 0.92, 0.72] 0.723(1.08) 28.42 < 0.001 82.4 0.986
Male 23 106 52 − 0.17 [− 0.60, 0.25] 0.427(0.64) 41.66 0.007 47.19  
Not mentioned 4 21 20 − .087 [− 1.01, 0.84] 0.854(0.854) 0.01 1 0  
Age/weeks
< 8 0 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.426
8–16 6 24 12 − 0.60 [− 1.43, 0.22] 0.153(0.612) 2.45 0.783 0  
> 16 2 12 12 NA NA NA NA NA NA  
Not mentioned 25 135 91 − 0.09 [− 0.48, 0.29] 0.63(0.63) 38.63 0.03 37.87  
Type of NSAID
NS-COX 22 130 87 − 0.25 [− 0.66, 0.14] 0.214(0.428) 50.72 < 0.001 58.6 0.41
S-COX2 11 41 28 0.04 [− 0.55, 0.65] 0.878(0.878) 18.12 0.053 44.81  
Time point
< 21 daysa 15 78 46 − 0.50 [− 1.00, − 0.01] 0.042(0.126) 11.97 0.609 0 0.162
21–48 days 15 73 49 0.14 [− 0.36, 0.64] 0.581((0.871) 25.94 0.026 46.04  
> 48 days 3 20 20 0.18 [− 0.99, 1,36] 0.758(0.758) 28.07 < 0.001 92.87  
Type of fractured bone
Femur 11 89 63 − 0.49 [− 0.99, 0.01] 0.055(0.165) 10.40 0.406 3.869 0.041a
Tibia 10 46 28 − 0.41 [− 1.03, 0.20] 0.192(0.192) 30.63 < 0.001 70.61  
Fibula 12 36 24 0.42 [− 0.14, 0.98] 0.143(0214) 19.18 0.058 42.65  
  1. N number of comparisons in analysis, SZ NSAID number of animals in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) group, SZ C., number of animals in control group, SMD standardized means of differences (Hedges’ g), CI confidence interval, NS-COX non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor, S-COX2 selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor, NA not analyzed because of insufficient data. adj.P value, adjusted P value through Holm-Bonferroni correction
  2. aNeed to be explained—more details in Tables S23–S28 (supplementary information file)