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Table 2 Factors identified to influence perceptions of private water quality with associated studies

From: Factors influencing perceptions of private water quality in North America: a systematic review

Article Year published Location Sample size Study approach Factors discussed
Jones et al. [1] 2006 Hamilton (CA) 246 Quantitative Well infrastructure, demographic factors, organoleptic properties, chemical and microbiological contaminants, external information
Flanagan et al. [2] 2015 Maine (USA) 386 Quantitative Demographic factors, perceived risk, chemical contaminants, organoleptic properties, well infrastructure
Jones et al. [17] 2005 Hamilton (CA) 16 Qualitative Organoleptic properties, perceived risk, external information
Flanagan et al. [18] 2015 Maine (USA) 525 Quantitative Chemical and microbiological contaminants, demographic factors, values, attitudes, and beliefs, well infrastructure
Roche et al. [19] 2013 Newfoundland and Labrador (CA) 618 Quantitative Demographic factors, well infrastructure, organoleptic properties, external information
Garcia et al. [26] 2016 Texas, Arizona and New Mexico (USA) 47 Quantitative Demographic factors, organoleptic properties, chemical and microbiological contaminants, past experience
Murti et al. [27] 2016 Arkansas, Indiana and Oklahoma (USA) 41 Qualitative Chemical and microbiological contaminants, organoleptic properties, external information
Colt et al. [28] 2002 New Hampshire (USA) 98 Quantitative Chemical contaminants, well infrastructure
Shaw et al. [29] 2005 Churchill county, Nevada (USA) 351 Quantitative Chemical contaminants, perceived risk, demographic factors
Schwartz et al. [30] 1998 New York (USA) 244 Quantitative Demographic factors, well infrastructure, perceived risk, chemical and microbiological contaminants, organoleptic properties
Poe et al. [31] 1998 Wisconsin and New York (USA) 307 Quantitative Chemical contaminants, perceived risk
Lewandowski et al. [32] 2008 Minnesota (USA) 483 surveys 377 testing kits Quantitative Well infrastructure, chemical and microbiological contaminants, organoleptic properties
Pieper et al. [33] 2015 Virginia (USA) 2146 Quantitative Chemical and microbiological contaminants, organoleptic properties, well infrastructure
Postma et al. [34] 2011 Gallatin County (USA) 188 households (320 children) Quantitative Demographic factors, chemical and microbiological contaminants
Mechenich et al. [35] 1994 Wisconsin (USA) 139 Quantitative Chemical contaminants, attitudes, and perceived risk
Strauss et al. [36] 2001 Ontario (CA) 647 Quantitative Demographic factors, microbiological contaminants
Schade et al. [37] 2015 West Virginia (USA) 498 Quantitative External information, chemical contaminants
Walker et al. [39] 2006 Churchill county Nevada (USA) 351 Quantitative Chemical contaminants, perceived risk,
McLeod et al. [40] 2014 Saskatchewan (CA) 1294 Quantitative Demographic factors, external information, values, attitudes, and beliefs
McLeod et al. [41] 2015 Saskatchewan (CA) 1294 Quantitative Organoleptic properties, past experience
Levallois et al. [42] 1998 Quebec (CA) 222 Quantitative Organoleptic properties, chemical contaminants, well infrastructure
Acharya et al [43] 2008 Alberta (CA) 33 Quantitative Organoleptic properties, perceived risk, microbiological contaminants
McSpirit et al. [44] 2011 West Virginia (US) 256 Quantitative Demographic factors, organoleptic properties, perceived risk
Merkel et al. [45] 2012 Pennsylvania (USA) 158 Mixed methods Organoleptic characteristics, demographic factors, perceived risk, values, attitudes, and beliefs
Summers [46] 2010 Alberta (CA) 1014 Quantitative Demographic factors, well infrastructure, values, attitudes, and beliefs, organoleptic properties, chemical and microbiological contaminants
Chappells et al. [47] 2015 Nova Scotia (CA) 420 (32 in depth interviews) Mixed methods Demographic factors, perceived risk, organoleptic properties, chemical and microbiological contaminants, past experience
Flanagan et al. [49] 2016 Maine and New Jersey (USA) 344 Quantitative Chemical contaminant, values, attitudes, and beliefs
Straub and Leahy [50] 2014 New England, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont (USA) 513/776 for children and 452/776 for parent Quantitative Demographic factors, organoleptic properties, perceived risk, external information
Lothorp et al. [51] 2016 Arizona (USA) 31/34 Quantitative Demographic factors, chemical contaminants
Kreutzwiser et al. [52] 2011 Ontario (CA) 1567 Quantitative Well infrastructure, microbiological contaminants, past experience, external information
Mahler et al. [48] 2014 Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington (USA) 225 Quantitative Organoleptic properties, demographic factors, perceived risk
Schubert et al. [53] 1999 Wisconsin (USA) 562 Quantitative Demographic factors, chemical contaminants, external information
Feinman et al. [54] 2015 New Mexico (USA) 6606 Quantitative Demographic factors
Imgrund et al. [55] 2011 Ontario (CA) 22 Qualitative Perceived risk, well infrastructure, values, attitudes, and beliefs. microbiological contaminants
Jones et al. [56] 2007 British Columbia (CA) 4612 Quantitative Demographic factors, perceived risks, microbiological contaminants
Johnson [57] 2008 New Jersey 266 Quantitative Demographic factors, values, attitudes, and beliefs, past experience
Renaud et al. [58] 2011 Quebec (CA) 542 Quantitative Demographic factors, external information, chemical contaminants
Ridpath et al. [59] 2016 48 states within the USA 1100 Quantitative Chemical and biological contaminants, external information, well infrastructure
Flanagan et al. [60] 2016 New Jersey (USA) 711 Quantitative Demographic factors, external information, perceived risk, chemical contaminants
Flanagan et al. [62] 2016 New Jersey (USA) 670 Quantitative Demographic factors, values, attitudes, and beliefs, perceived risk, chemical contaminants
Laflamme et al. [66] 2004 Washington (USA) 6927 Quantitative Perceived risk, chemical contaminants
Severtson et al. [67] 2006 Wisconsin (USA) 545 Quantitative Demographic factors, perceived risk, chemical contaminants, past experience
Severtson et al. [68] 2008 Wisconsin (USA) 897 Mixed methods Chemical contaminants, demographic factors, perceived risk
Slotnick et al. [69] 2006 Michigan (USA) 221 Quantitative Chemical contaminants, well infrastructure
Kite-Powell et al. [70] 2006 Oregon (USA) 102 Quantitative Chemical contaminants
Tabbot [71] 2006 New Jersey (USA) 50 Quantitative Chemical and microbiological contaminants, organoleptic properties
Hexemer et al. [72] 2008 Ontario (CA) 248 Quantitative Chemical and microbiological contaminants, demographic factors, external information
Swistock et al. [73] 2012 Pennsylvania (USA) 450 Quantitative Chemical and microbiological contaminants, well infrastructure
Paul et al. [74] 2015 Tuftonboro (USA) 285 Quantitative External information
Pintar et al. [75] 2009 Ontario (CA) 2332 Quantitative Demographic factors
Yu et al. [76] 2014 Nova Scotia (CA) 960 Quantitative Demographic factors, well infrastructure, chemical contaminants
Malecki et al. [77] 2017 Wisconsin (USA) 460 Quantitative Organoleptic properties, demographic factors, chemical and microbiological contaminants