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  1. The Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized clinical trials was introduced in 2008 and has frequently been commented on and used in systematic reviews. We wanted to evaluate the tool by reviewing published c...

    Authors: Lars Jørgensen, Asger S. Paludan-Müller, David R. T. Laursen, Jelena Savović, Isabelle Boutron, Jonathan A. C. Sterne, Julian P. T. Higgins and Asbjørn Hróbjartsson
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:80
  2. Interventions to improve medication adherence are diverse and complex. Consequently, synthesizing this evidence is challenging. We aimed to extend the results from an existing systematic review of intervention...

    Authors: Leila Kahwati, Meera Viswanathan, Carol E. Golin, Heather Kane, Megan Lewis and Sara Jacobs
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:83
  3. Systematic reviews evaluating complex interventions often encounter substantial clinical heterogeneity in intervention components and implementation features making synthesis challenging. Qualitative comparati...

    Authors: Leila Kahwati, Sara Jacobs, Heather Kane, Megan Lewis, Meera Viswanathan and Carol E. Golin
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:82
  4. Systematic reviews of behaviour change interventions for smoking cessation vary in scope, quality, and applicability. The current review aims to generate more accurate and useful findings by (1) a detailed ana...

    Authors: Marijn de Bruin, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Maarten C. Eisma, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Robert West, Eleanor Bull, Susan Michie and Marie Johnston
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:77
  5. Critically ill patients have an increased risk of developing delirium during their intensive care stay. To date, pharmacological interventions have not been shown to be effective for delirium management but no...

    Authors: Leona Bannon, Jennifer McGaughey, Mike Clarke, Daniel Francis McAuley and Bronagh Blackwood
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:75
  6. Erythema migrans represents an early cutaneous and most common manifestation of Lyme borreliosis. Recommendations regarding pharmacological agents, dose and duration of treatment are subject of intense debate....

    Authors: Gabriel Torbahn, Heidelore Hofmann, Roman Allert, Michael H. Freitag, Rick Dersch, Volker Fingerle, Harriet Sommer, Edith Motschall, Jörg J. Meerpohl and Christine Schmucker
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:73
  7. Lumbar spinal fusion for degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine is frequently used, despite current research presenting inconclusive evidence. This study aims to systematically review and meta-analyse the ...

    Authors: Niek Koenders, Alison Rushton, Nicola Heneghan, Martin L. Verra, Paul Willems, Thomas Hoogeboom and J Bart Staal
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:72
  8. The parameters of the optic disc and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) in children may vary with disease processes that contribute to visual impairment and blindness and so could be useful as an ...

    Authors: Alexandra L. Creavin, Cathy Williams, Kate Tilling, Nicholas Timpson and Julian P. T. Higgins
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:71
  9. District health managers play a key role in the effectiveness of decentralized health systems in low- and middle-income countries. Inadequate management and leadership skills often hamper their ability to impr...

    Authors: Zakaria Belrhiti, Andrew Booth, Bruno Marchal and Roosmarijn Verstraeten
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:70
  10. Authors: Karen M. Goldstein, Jennifer R. McDuffie, Megan Shepherd-Banigan, Deanna Befus, Remy R. Coeytaux, Megan G. Van Noord, Adam P. Goode, Varsha Masilamani, Soheir Adam, Avishek Nagi and John W. Williams Jr
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:69

    The original article was published in Systematic Reviews 2016 5:56

  11. The global transfer of nursing and midwifery education to higher education institutes has led to student nurses and midwives experiencing challenges previously faced by traditional third-level students, includ...

    Authors: Jean Carragher and Jennifer McGaughey
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:68
  12. For people with end-stage kidney disease on hemodialysis, exercise during the dialysis treatment (intradialytic exercise) may promote exercise adherence and enhance aspects of the dialysis treatment. However, ...

    Authors: Stephanie Thompson, Alex Clark, Anita Molzahn, Scott Klarenbach and Marcello Tonelli
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:67
  13. With an ageing population, the incidence of hip fractures requiring surgery is increasing. Post-operative delirium is common following hip fracture surgery. Delirium is associated with high mortality and morbi...

    Authors: Joyce Yeung, Vanisha Patel, Rita Champaneria and Janine Dretzke
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:66
  14. There has been a global increase in the use of herbal medicinal products (HMPs). About a quarter of UK adults use HMPs, bought over the counter by self-prescription and often not disclosed to healthcare profes...

    Authors: Taofikat Agbabiaka, Barbara Wider, Leala Kay Watson and Claire Goodman
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:65
  15. In recent years, there have been numerous calls for global institutions to develop and enforce new international laws. International laws are, however, often blunt instruments with many uncertain benefits, cos...

    Authors: Steven J. Hoffman, Matthew Hughsam, Harkanwal Randhawa, Lathika Sritharan, Gordon Guyatt, John N. Lavis and John-Arne Røttingen
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:64
  16. People living with HIV (PLHIV) in African countries are living longer due to the rollout of antiretroviral drug therapy programs, but they are at increasing risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, t...

    Authors: David A. Watkins, Nathaniel L. Tulloch, Molly E. Anderson, Scott Barnhart, Krisela Steyn and Naomi S. Levitt
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:63
  17. Anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory (CPAs) postural adjustments are organised by the central nervous system (CNS) and serve to control postural perturbations. Ineffective APAs and CPAs have been hypothesised ...

    Authors: Michael F. Knox, Lucy S. Chipchase, Siobhan M. Schabrun and Paul W. M. Marshall
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:62
  18. Claims of and calls for evidence-informed policymaking pervade public health journals and the literature of governments and global health agencies, yet our knowledge of the arrangements most conducive to the a...

    Authors: Ben Verboom, Paul Montgomery and Sara Bennett
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:61
  19. Kawasaki disease (KD) is a form of self-limiting vasculitis that causes coronary artery abnormality in children. Based on reports of elevated plasma level of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α in KD pat...

    Authors: Osamu Nomura, Sayaka Fukuda, Erika Ota, Hiroshi Ono, Akira Ishiguro and Tohru Kobayashi
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:60
  20. Information technologies can facilitate the implementation of health interventions, especially in the case of widespread conditions such as pain. Tailored Web-based interventions have been recognized for healt...

    Authors: Géraldine Martorella, C. Gélinas, M. Bérubé, M. Boitor, S. Fredericks and S. LeMay
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:59
  21. The welfare state is potentially an important macro-level determinant of health that also moderates the extent, and impact, of socio-economic inequalities in exposure to the social determinants of health. The ...

    Authors: Katie Thomson, Clare Bambra, Courtney McNamara, Tim Huijts and Adam Todd
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:57
  22. Vasomotor symptoms such as hot flashes and night sweats are a common concern of perimenopausal and postmenopausal women and are associated with a decreased quality of life. These symptoms can be effectively ma...

    Authors: Karen M. Goldstein, Jennifer R. McDuffie, Megan Shepherd-Banigan, Deanna Befus, Remy R. Coeytaux, Megan G. Van Noord, Adam P. Goode, Varsha Masilamani, Soheir Adam, Avishek Nagi and John W. Williams Jr
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:56

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Systematic Reviews 2016 5:69

  23. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a significant cause of death in developed countries. The majority of OHCA patients are elderly (≥65 years), and it was documented that they were less likely than younge...

    Authors: Joanna M. Bielecki, Josephine Wong, Nicholas Mitsakakis, Prakesh S. Shah, Murray D. Krahn and Valeria E. Rac
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:55
  24. There is a growing emphasis in public health on the importance of evidence-based interventions to improve population health and reduce health inequities. Equally important is the need for knowledge about how t...

    Authors: Marjorie MacDonald, Bernadette Pauly, Geoff Wong, Kara Schick-Makaroff, Thea van Roode, Heather Wilson Strosher, Anita Kothari, Ruta Valaitis, Heather Manson, Warren O’Briain, Simon Carroll, Victoria Lee, Samantha Tong, Karen Dickenson Smith and Megan Ward
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:54
  25. Unregulated care aides provide up to 80 % of direct resident care in nursing homes. They have little formal training, manage high workloads, frequently experience responsive behaviours from residents, and are ...

    Authors: Matthias Hoben, Huimin Hu, Tianyuan Xiong, Angelle Kent, Nadia Kobagi and Minn N. Yoon
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:53
  26. HIV is still a global public health problem. More than 75 % of HIV-infected people are in Africa, and most of them are unaware of their HIV status, which is a barrier to accessing antiretroviral treatment. Our...

    Authors: Bernard Njau, Damian J. Damian, Leila Abdullahi, Andrew Boulle and Catherine Mathews
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:52
  27. Sleep disturbance is a common and significant health problem that has been linked to decreased quality of life. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) can be a potentially effective intervention for insomni...

    Authors: Seong Min Kim, Jeong Min Park and Hyun-Ju Seo
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:51
  28. Most orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs) are inserted between dental roots. The prevalence of contacting these structures is high. Such contacts can cause permanent root damage and implant instability. Increased ...

    Authors: Reint Meursinge Reynders, Luisa Ladu, Laura Ronchi, Nicola Di Girolamo, Jan de Lange, Nia Roberts and Annette Plüddemann
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:50
  29. Research examining the effects of oxytocin (OT) interventions on psychiatric, social-behavioral, and social-cognitive outcomes regularly collect peripheral levels of OT as markers of central bioavailability. S...

    Authors: Mathias Valstad, Gail A. Alvares, Ole A. Andreassen, Lars T. Westlye and Daniel S. Quintana
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:49
  30. Blinding is a measure in randomized controlled trials (RCT) to reduce detection and performance bias. There is evidence that lack of blinding leads to overestimated treatment effects. Because of the physical c...

    Authors: Pascal Probst, Kathrin Grummich, Patrick Heger, Steffen Zaschke, Phillip Knebel, Alexis Ulrich, Markus W. Büchler and Markus K. Diener
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:48
  31. It is known that regular physical activity (PA) is associated with improvements in physical, psychological, cognitive, and functional health outcomes. The World Health Organization recommends 150 min of modera...

    Authors: Saskia Muellmann, Sarah Forberger, Tobias Möllers, Hajo Zeeb and Claudia R Pischke
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:47
  32. There is an increased need for additional care and support services for the elderly population. It is important to identify what support older people need once they are discharged from hospital and to ensure c...

    Authors: Elaine O’Connell Francischetto, Sarah Damery, Sarah Davies and Gill Combes
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:46
  33. Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common, life-long paediatric disability. Taking care of a child with CP often results in caregiver burden/strain in the long run. As caregivers play an essential role in the reh...

    Authors: Jermaine M. Dambi, Jennifer Jelsma, Tecla Mlambo, Matthew Chiwaridzo, Nyaradzai Dangarembizi-Munambah and Lieselotte Corten
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:42
  34. There has been an expansion of circumcision services in Africa as part of a long-term HIV prevention strategy. However, the effect of infant male circumcision on morbidity and mortality still remains unclear. ...

    Authors: Thomas Gyan, Natalie Strobel, Kimberley McAuley, Caitlin Shannon, Sam Newton, Charlotte Tawiah-Agyemang, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Seth Owusu-Agyei, David Forbes and Karen Edmond
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:41
  35. Abstracts and plain language summaries (PLS) are often the first, and sometimes the only, point of contact between readers and systematic reviews. It is important to identify how these summaries are used and t...

    Authors: Fiona Alderdice, Jenny McNeill, Toby Lasserson, Elaine Beller, Margaret Carroll, Vanora Hundley, Judith Sunderland, Declan Devane, Jane Noyes, Susan Key, Sarah Norris, Janine Wyn-Davies and Mike Clarke
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:40
  36. Previously, we reported on the low recall of Google Scholar (GS) for systematic review (SR) searching. Here, we test our conclusions further in a prospective study by comparing the coverage, recall, and precis...

    Authors: Wichor M. Bramer, Dean Giustini and Bianca M. R. Kramer
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:39
  37. Liver resection is commonly performed for malignant and benign disease and is associated with frequent use of intraoperative and postoperative blood transfusions. Blood transfusions are potentially life-saving...

    Authors: Sean Bennett, Laura Baker, Risa Shorr, Guillaume Martel and Dean Fergusson
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:38
  38. Health information has become readily accessible through mass media, and people are playing a more active and autonomous role in their health. Much of the health information that was previously only available ...

    Authors: Leila Cusack, Chris B. Del Mar, Iain Chalmers and Tammy C. Hoffmann
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:37
  39. A peer-reviewed journal would not survive without the generous time and insightful comments of the reviewers, whose efforts often go unrecognized. Although final decisions are always editorial, they are greatl...

    Authors: David Moher, Paul Shekelle and Lesley A. Stewart
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:36
  40. The spread of early detection and the improvement of cancer treatment have led to an increased prevalence of cancer survivors, including in the working age population. Return-to-work (RTW) of cancer survivors ...

    Authors: Régine Kiasuwa Mbengi, Renée Otter, Katrien Mortelmans, Marc Arbyn, Herman Van Oyen, Catherine Bouland and Christophe de Brouwer
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:35
  41. Some sedatives used in children and adolescents can affect memory function. Memory impairment of traumatic experience can minimize the chance of future psychological trauma. Knowledge about the potential of di...

    Authors: Karolline A. Viana, Anelise Daher, Lucianne C. Maia, Paulo S. Costa, Carolina C. Martins, Saul M. Paiva and Luciane R. Costa
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:34
  42. This letter describes a simple way of using Adobe Acrobat Pro DC to help select and auto-extract data from Portable Document Format (PDFs) of randomised trials in order to assist swift early selection of trial...

    Authors: Selin Nur, Clive E. Adams and David F. Brailsford
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:33
  43. Physical performance such as muscle strength or walking speed of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is lower than that of people who do not have CAD and is related to mortality and re-admission rates....

    Authors: Shuhei Yamamoto, Takayoshi Yamaga, Yasunari Sakai, Takaaki Ishida, Saki Nakasone, Masayoshi Ohira, Erika Ota and Rintaro Mori
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:32
  44. In the UK, over 6500 people die by suicide each year. In England alone, this is one person every 2 h. Professionals assess risk of suicide in face-to-face contacts with people potentially at risk. The National...

    Authors: Rose McCabe, Ruth Garside, Amy Backhouse and Penny Xanthopoulou
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:31

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