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  1. Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are new narcotic or psychotropic drugs that are not controlled by the United Nations drug convention that may pose a serious public health threat due to their wide availabil...

    Authors: Salma M. Khaled, Elizabeth Hughes, Dan Bressington, Monica Zolezzi, Ahmed Radwan, Ashish Badnapurkar and Richard Gray
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:195
  2. Critically ill patients frequently experience severe agitation placing them at risk of harm. Physical restraint is common in intensive care units (ICUs) for clinician concerns about safety. However, physical r...

    Authors: Louise Rose, Craig Dale, Orla M. Smith, Lisa Burry, Glenn Enright, Dean Fergusson, Samir Sinha, Lesley Wiesenfeld, Tasnim Sinuff and Sangeeta Mehta
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:194
  3. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide leading cause of mortality and disability. Among TBI complications, agitation is a frequent behavioural problem. Agitation causes potential harm to patients and care...

    Authors: David R. Williamson, Anne Julie Frenette, Lisa Burry, Marc M. Perreault, Emmanuel Charbonney, François Lamontagne, Marie-Julie Potvin, Jean-François Giguère, Sangeeta Mehta and Francis Bernard
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:193
  4. Complex or heterogeneous data pose challenges for systematic review and meta-analysis. In recent years, a number of new methods have been developed to meet these challenges. This qualitative interview study ai...

    Authors: Theo Lorenc, Lambert Felix, Mark Petticrew, G J Melendez-Torres, James Thomas, Sian Thomas, Alison O’Mara-Eves and Michelle Richardson
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:192
  5. Websites and online resources outside academic bibliographic databases can be significant sources for identifying literature, though there are challenges in searching and managing the results. These are pertin...

    Authors: Claire Stansfield, Kelly Dickson and Mukdarut Bangpan
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:191
  6. Overviews of reviews (overviews) compile data from multiple systematic reviews to provide a single synthesis of relevant evidence for decision-making. Despite their increasing popularity, there is limited meth...

    Authors: Michelle Pollock, Ricardo M. Fernandes, Lorne A. Becker, Robin Featherstone and Lisa Hartling
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:190
  7. Amphetamine and methamphetamine use disorders are associated with severe health and social consequences. No pharmacological therapy has been approved for the treatment of these disorders. Psychostimulants can ...

    Authors: Meha Bhatt, Laura Zielinski, Lola Baker-Beal, Neera Bhatnagar, Natalia Mouravska, Phillip Laplante, Andrew Worster, Lehana Thabane and Zainab Samaan
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:189
  8. In the absence of existing data, the present review intends to determine the incidence, prevalence and/or genetic determinants of neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM), with expected contribution to disease charact...

    Authors: Jobert Richie N. Nansseu, Suzanne S. Ngo-Um and Eric V. Balti
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:188
  9. Estimates of the burden of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are needed to ascertain AMR impact, to evaluate interventions, and to allocate resources efficiently. Recent studies have estimated health, cost, and e...

    Authors: Nichola R. Naylor, Sachin Silva, Kavian Kulasabanathan, Rifat Atun, Nina Zhu, Gwenan M. Knight and Julie Robotham
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:187
  10. The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA)/degenerative joint disease (DJD) is increasing in the USA. Systematic reviews of treatment efficacy and adverse events (AEs) of hyaluronic acid (HA) injections report...

    Authors: Claire E. O’Hanlon, Sydne J. Newberry, Marika Booth, Sean Grant, Aneesa Motala, Margaret A. Maglione, John D. FitzGerald and Paul G. Shekelle
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:186
  11. Policymakers and healthcare stakeholders are increasingly seeking evidence to inform the policymaking process, and often use existing or commissioned systematic reviews to inform decisions. However, the method...

    Authors: Chantelle Garritty, Adrienne Stevens, Gerald Gartlehner, Valerie King and Chris Kamel
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:184
  12. The management of osteoarthritis (OA) is unsatisfactory, as most treatments are not clinically effective over placebo and most drugs have considerable side effects. On average, 75 % of the analgesic effect fro...

    Authors: Yu Fu, Monica S. M. Persson, Archan Bhattacharya, Siew-Li Goh, Joanne Stocks, Marienke van Middelkoop, Sita M. A. Bierma-Zeinstra, David Walsh, Michael Doherty and Weiya Zhang
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:183
  13. Colorectal cancer represents the fourth most common cancer in England and Wales; survival is high for early stage disease but declines sharply with advanced stage. UK figures suggest that cancer survival rates...

    Authors: Ella Mozdiak, Alexander Tsertsvadze, Michael McFarlane, Monika Widlak, Maria Tabuso, Amber Dunlop and Ramesh Arasaradnam
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:182
  14. Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat hypertension in China and East Asia since centuries. In this study, we conduct an overview of systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of pr...

    Authors: Zhao Xinke, Li Yingdong, Feng Mingxia, Liu Kai, Chen Kaibing, Lu Yuqing, Sun Shaobo, Song Peng and Liu Bin
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:180
  15. In 2013, there was a shortage of approximately 7.2 million health workers worldwide, which is larger among family physicians than among specialists. eLearning could provide a potential solution to some of thes...

    Authors: Živa Cotič, Rebecca Rees, Petra A. Wark and Josip Car
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:179
  16. mLearning is increasingly presented as an attractive novel educational strategy for medical and nursing education. Yet, evidence base for its effectiveness or factors which influence use, success, implementati...

    Authors: Charmaine Krishnasamy, Sik Yin Ong, Yvonne Yock, Issac Lim, Rebecca Rees and Josip Car
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:178
  17. Cluster randomised trials (CRTs) are a key instrument to evaluate public health interventions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Fidelity assessment examines study processes to gauge wh...

    Authors: Myriam Cielo Pérez, Nanor Minoyan, Valéry Ridde, Marie-Pierre Sylvestre and Mira Johri
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:177
  18. Telemedicine applications aim to address variance in clinical outcomes and increase access to specialist expertise. Despite widespread implementation, there is little robust evidence about cost-effectiveness, ...

    Authors: Nicola Mackintosh, Marius Terblanche, Ritesh Maharaj, Andreas Xyrichis, Karen Franklin, Jamie Keddie, Emily Larkins, Anna Maslen, James Skinner, Samuel Newman, Joana Hiew De Sousa Magalhaes and Jane Sandall
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:176
  19. Resource and geographic barriers are the commonly cited constraints preventing the uptake of psychological treatment for chronic pain management. For adults, there is some evidence to support the use of inform...

    Authors: Angeline Traynor, Eimear Morrissey, Jonathan Egan and Brian E. McGuire
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:175
  20. Journal abstracts including those reporting systematic reviews (SR) should contain sufficiently clear and accurate information for adequate comprehension and interpretation. The aim was to compare the quality ...

    Authors: Jean Joel R. Bigna, Lewis N. Um and Jobert Richie N. Nansseu
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:174
  21. Failure to successfully implement and sustain change over the long term continues to be a major problem in health and social care. Translating evidence into routine clinical practice is notoriously complex, an...

    Authors: Stephan U. Dombrowski, Pauline Campbell, Helen Frost, Alex Pollock, Julie McLellan, Steve MacGillivray, Anna Gavine, Margaret Maxwell, Ronan O’Carroll, Helen Cheyne, Justin Presseau and Brian Williams
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:173
  22. Overviews of methods are potentially useful means to increase clarity and enhance collective understanding of specific methods topics that may be characterized by ambiguity, inconsistency, or a lack of compreh...

    Authors: Stephen J. Gentles, Cathy Charles, David B. Nicholas, Jenny Ploeg and K. Ann McKibbon
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:172
  23. Given limited resources and time constraints, the use of existing systematic reviews (SR) for the development of evidence-based public health recommendations has become increasingly important. Recently, a five...

    Authors: Thomas Harder, Cornelius Remschmidt, Sebastian Haller, Tim Eckmanns and Ole Wichmann
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:171
  24. Western publicly funded health care systems increasingly rely on interdisciplinary teams to support primary care delivery and management of chronic conditions. This knowledge synthesis focuses on what is known...

    Authors: W. Dominika Wranik, Jill A. Hayden, Sheri Price, Robin M.N. Parker, Susan M. Haydt, Jeanette M. Edwards, Esther Suter, Alan Katz, Liesl L. Gambold and Adrian R. Levy
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:170
  25. Distinguishing hydatidiform moles (HMs) from non-molar specimens and the subclassification of HM are important because complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) is associated with an increased risk of gestational troph...

    Authors: Jose Mauro Madi, Antonio Rodrigues Braga, Machline Paim Paganella, Isnard Elman Litvin and Eliana Márcia Da Ros Wendland
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:169
  26. Approximately half of new invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed each year in the United States occur among women aged 65 years and older. The increasing life expectancy coupled with the attendant rise in brea...

    Authors: Joshua Demb, Isabel Allen and Dejana Braithwaite
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:168
  27. NHS England’s Five Year Forward View (NHS England, Five Year Forward View, 2014) formally introduced a strategy for new models of care driven by simultaneous pressures to contain costs, improve care and delive...

    Authors: Alison Turner, Abeda Mulla, Andrew Booth, Shiona Aldridge, Sharon Stevens, Fraser Battye and Peter Spilsbury
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:167
  28. Life-long specialized care is of the utmost importance to safeguard longevity as well as the quality of life in children diagnosed with a chronic condition (CC). Provision of life-long care, however, infers tr...

    Authors: Mariela Acuña Mora, Philip Moons, Carina Sparud-Lundin, Ewa-Lena Bratt and Eva Goossens
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:166
  29. Pain is the most troubling issue to patients with osteoarthritis (OA), yet current pharmacological treatments offer only small-to-moderate pain reduction. Current guidelines therefore emphasise the need to ide...

    Authors: Monica S. M. Persson, Yu Fu, Archan Bhattacharya, Siew-Li Goh, Marienke van Middelkoop, Sita M. A. Bierma-Zeinstra, David Walsh, Michael Doherty and Weiya Zhang
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:165
  30. Grey literature includes a range of documents not controlled by commercial publishing organisations. This means that grey literature can be difficult to search and retrieve for evidence synthesis. Much knowled...

    Authors: Jean Adams, Frances C. Hillier-Brown, Helen J. Moore, Amelia A. Lake, Vera Araujo-Soares, Martin White and Carolyn Summerbell
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:164
  31. Numerous surveys have shown that orthodontic mini implants (OMIs) are underused in clinical practice. To investigate this implementation issue, we conducted a systematic review to (1) identify barriers and fac...

    Authors: Reint Meursinge Reynders, Laura Ronchi, Luisa Ladu, Nicola Di Girolamo, Jan de Lange, Nia Roberts and Sharon Mickan
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:163

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Systematic Reviews 2016 5:181

  32. Impetigo, scabies, and fungal skin infections disproportionately affect populations in resource-limited settings. Evidence for standard treatment of skin infections predominantly stem from hospital-based studi...

    Authors: Philippa May, Asha Bowen, Steven Tong, Andrew Steer, Sam Prince, Ross Andrews, Bart Currie and Jonathan Carapetis
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:162
  33. Osteoporosis is a global high prevalence of chronic metabolic disease with serious disability-adjusted life years losing. Acupuncture is used to treat osteoporosis broadly in China and other countries although...

    Authors: Taipin Guo, Xiao Chen, Xiangnong Wu, Exian Shan, Yaju Jin, Xiantao Tai, Zili Liu, Bowen Zhu, Kai Yuan and Zukun Chen
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:161
  34. Antiretroviral therapies for human immunodeficiency virus are more effective if infected individuals are diagnosed early, before they have irreversible immunologic damage. A large proportion of patients that a...

    Authors: Benhildah N. Rumbwere Dube, Tom P. Marshall and Ronan P. Ryan
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:158
  35. Sedatives and analgesics are administered to provide sedation and manage agitation and pain in most critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. Various sedation administration strategies including protoco...

    Authors: Brian Hutton, Lisa D. Burry, Salmaan Kanji, Sangeeta Mehta, Melanie Guenette, Claudio M. Martin, Dean A. Fergusson, Neill K. Adhikari, Ingrid Egerod, David Williamson, Sharon Straus, David Moher, E. Wesley Ely and Louise Rose
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:157
  36. There is a lack of high-quality meta-analyses and network meta-analyses of immunosuppressive drugs for lupus nephritis. Our objective was to assess the comparative benefits and harms of immunosuppressive drugs...

    Authors: Jasvinder A. Singh, Alomgir Hossain, Ahmed Kotb and George A. Wells
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:155
  37. Sedation is an important consideration in the care of the neurocritically ill patient. It provides anxiety and relief, facilitates procedures and nursing tasks, and minimizes intolerance of mechanical ventilat...

    Authors: Alexandre Tran, Henrietta Blinder, Brian Hutton and Shane English
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:154
  38. Delirium is characterized by acute changes in mental status including inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered level of consciousness, and is highly prevalent in critically ill adults. Delirium has adve...

    Authors: L.D. Burry, B. Hutton, M. Guenette, D. Williamson, S. Mehta, I. Egerod, S. Kanji, N.K. Adhikari, D. Moher, C.M. Martin and L. Rose
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:153
  39. Chronic wounds impose a significant and often underappreciated burden to the individual, the healthcare system and the society as a whole. Preliminary literature search suggests that there are at present no re...

    Authors: Krister Järbrink, Gao Ni, Henrik Sönnergren, Artur Schmidtchen, Caroline Pang, Ram Bajpai and Josip Car
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:152
  40. Viscoelastic tests, including thromboelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), provide a global assessment of haemostatic function at the point of care. The use of a TEG or ROTEM system to ...

    Authors: Kate Elizabeth McCrossin, David Edmund Piers Bramley, Elizabeth Hessian, Evelyn Hutcheon and Georgina Imberger
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:151
  41. Pressure ulcers are a serious, common, lifelong, and costly secondary complication of spinal cord injury (SCI). Community-dwelling people with a SCI can prevent them with appropriate skin care (i.e. pressure r...

    Authors: Justine Baron, Jillian Swaine, J. Presseau, Arlene Aspinall, Susan Jaglal, Barry White, Dalton Wolfe and Jeremy Grimshaw
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:150
  42. In term infants, there is evidence that early complementary feeding is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Therefore, timely introduction of complementary feeding during infancy is necessary. The World Health...

    Authors: Karin M. Vissers, Edith J. M. Feskens, Johannes B. van Goudoever and Arieke J. Janse
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:149
  43. This systematic review evaluated St. John’s wort (SJW) for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The objectives of this review are to (1) evaluate the efficacy and safety of SJW in adults with MDD ...

    Authors: Eric A. Apaydin, Alicia R. Maher, Roberta Shanman, Marika S. Booth, Jeremy N. V. Miles, Melony E. Sorbero and Susanne Hempel
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:148
  44. ‘Exercise’ is universally recommended as a core treatment for knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA). However, there are very few head-to-head comparative trials to determine the relative efficacy between different ...

    Authors: Siew-Li Goh, Monica S. M. Persson, Archan Bhattacharya, Michelle Hall, Michael Doherty and Weiya Zhang
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:147
  45. Phantom limb pain (PLP) is characterized by the anatomical shifting of neighbouring somatosensory and motor areas into a deafferented cortical area of the brain contralateral to the amputated limb. It has been...

    Authors: Katleho Limakatso, Lieselotte Corten and Romy Parker
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2016 5:145

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