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  1. Workplace-based assessments were designed to facilitate observation and structure feedback on the performance of trainees in real-time clinical settings and scenarios. Research in workplace-based assessments h...

    Authors: Aileen Barrett, Rose Galvin, Yvonne Steinert, Albert Scherpbier, Ann O’Shaughnessy, Mary Horgan and Tanya Horsley
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:65
  2. The burden of chronic disease on patients and the health service is growing. Current health policy emphasises the need for services which provide integrated and co-ordinated care for patients with chronic dise...

    Authors: Sarah Damery, Sarah Flanagan and Gill Combes
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:64
  3. Organisations need to systematically identify contributory factors (or causes) which impact on patient safety in order to effectively learn from error. Investigations of error have tended to focus on taking a ...

    Authors: Sally Giles, Maria Panagioti, Andrea Hernan, Sudeh Cheraghi-Sohi and Rebecca Lawton
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:63
  4. Vaccine against pertussis has been in use for several decades. Despite the widespread use of pertussis vaccine, evidence shows resurgence of pertussis in high-income countries. Pertussis surveillance data is l...

    Authors: Rudzani Muloiwa, Benjamin M Kagina, Mark E Engel and Gregory D Hussey
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:62
  5. Obesity is one of the most significant public health challenges in the developed world. Recent policy has suggested that more can be done in primary care to support adults with obesity. In particular, general ...

    Authors: David N Blane, Sara Macdonald, David Morrison and Catherine A O’Donnell
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:61
  6. Low-level laser therapy is one of the adjunct treatments of choice with exercise therapy for shoulder rehabilitation in physiotherapy clinical practices. Although previous reviews have found little use of low-...

    Authors: Adedapo W Awotidebe, Gakeemah Inglis-Jassiem and Taryn Young
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:60
  7. Several aggregate published reviews have compared the effectiveness of one- and two-stage surgical revision to prevent re-infection following prosthetic hip infection and have reported inconsistent results. In...

    Authors: Setor K Kunutsor, Michael R Whitehouse, Jason Webb, Andrew Toms, Ian Stockley, Adrian Taylor, Stephen Jones, Matthew Wilson, Ben Burston, Tim Board, John-Paul Whittaker, Ashley W Blom and Andrew D Beswick
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:58
  8. Meta-analyses are typically triggered by a (potentially false-significant) finding in one of the preceding primary studies. We studied consequences of meta-analysis investigating effects when primary studies t...

    Authors: Ewoud Schuit, Kit CB Roes, Ben WJ Mol, Anneke Kwee, Karel GM Moons and Rolf HH Groenwold
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:57
  9. Suicide is a worldwide public health concern that claims close to 1 million lives each year. Suicidal behaviour is a significant risk factor for completed suicide and is much more prevalent than completed suic...

    Authors: Rebecca Eisen, Stefan Perera, Monica Bawor, Laura Banfield, Rebecca Anglin, Luciano Minuzzi and Zainab Samaan
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:56
  10. Totally implantable venous access port (TIVAP) implantation is one of the most often performed operations in general surgery (over 100,000/year in Germany). The two main approaches for TIVAP placement are inse...

    Authors: Ulla Klaiber, Kathrin Grummich, Katrin Jensen, Daniel Saure, Pietro Contin, Felix J Hüttner, Markus K Diener and Phillip Knebel
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:53
  11. This paper describes the structured methods used to involve patients, carers and health professionals in an update of a Cochrane systematic review relating to physiotherapy after stroke and explores the percei...

    Authors: Alex Pollock, Pauline Campbell, Gillian Baer, Pei Ling Choo, Jacqui Morris and Anne Forster
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:55
  12. Suicide is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Suicide attempts and suicidal ideation are more common than completed suicide and are associated with psychological distress. These behaviors are conside...

    Authors: Stefan Perera, Rebecca Eisen, Monica Bawor, Brittany Dennis, Russell de Souza, Lehana Thabane and Zainab Samaan
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:52
  13. Individuals living with acquired brain injury, typically caused by stroke or trauma, are far less likely to achieve recommended levels of physical activity for optimal health and well-being. With a growing num...

    Authors: Taryn M Jones, Catherine M Dean, Julia M Hush, Blake F Dear and Nickolai Titov
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:51
  14. Rapid review (RR) products are inherently appealing as they are intended to be less time-consuming and resource-intensive than traditional systematic reviews (SRs); however, there is concern about the rigor of...

    Authors: Robin M Featherstone, Donna M Dryden, Michelle Foisy, Jeanne-Marie Guise, Matthew D Mitchell, Robin A Paynter, Karen A Robinson, Craig A Umscheid and Lisa Hartling
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:50
  15. The consequences of opioid relapse among patients being treated with opioid substitution treatment (OST) are serious and can result in abnormal cardiovascular function, overdose, and mortality. Chronic pain is...

    Authors: Brittany B Dennis, Monica Bawor, James Paul, Michael Varenbut, Jeff Daiter, Carolyn Plater, Guillaume Pare, David C Marsh, Andrew Worster, Dipika Desai, Lehana Thabane and Zainab Samaan
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:49
  16. Eczema is a common chronic or chronically relapsing skin disease that has a substantial impact on quality of life (QoL). By means of a consensus-based process, the Harmonising Outcome Measures in Eczema (HOME)...

    Authors: Christian J Apfelbacher, Daniel Heinl, Cecilia A C Prinsen, Stefanie Deckert, Joanne Chalmers, Robert Ofenloch, Rosemary Humphreys, Tracey Sach, Sarah Chamlin and Jochen Schmitt
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:48
  17. Transfemoral cardiac catheterisation is an invasive medical procedure used for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes. Postoperative bed rest can prevent a number of complications such as bleeding and haematoma fo...

    Authors: Alberto Dal Molin, Fabrizio Faggiano, Fabio Bertoncini, Giulia Buratti, Erica Busca, Roberta Casarotto, Samanta Gaboardi and Elias Allara
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:47
  18. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is considered to be closely associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), in which EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) was found to have an oncogenic role. However, the resu...

    Authors: Vivaldo G da Costa, Ariany C Marques-Silva and Marcos L Moreli
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:46
  19. Brief interventions (BIs) involve screening for alcohol misuse and providing feedback to patients about their use, with the aim of reducing alcohol consumption and related consequences. BIs have been implement...

    Authors: Caitlin J Davey, Meredith SH Landy, Amanda Pecora, David Quintero and Kelly E McShane
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:45
  20. Chronic kidney disease affects approximately one in ten North Americans and is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Chronic kidney disease in women is characterized by an abnormal sex hormone...

    Authors: Sharanya Ramesh, Michelle C Mann, Jayna M Holroyd-Leduc, Stephen B Wilton, Matthew T James, Ellen W Seely and Sofia B Ahmed
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:44
  21. Upper limb disability is a common musculoskeletal condition frequently associated with neck pain. Recent literature has reported the need to utilise validated upper limb outcome measures in the assessment and ...

    Authors: Ahmad Salah Eldin Alreni, Deborah Harrop, Anil Gumber and Sionnadh McLean
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:43
  22. Depression is a common comorbidity in individuals with cognitive impairment. Those with cognitive impairments face unique challenges in receiving the benefits of many conventional therapies for depression, and...

    Authors: Jane Topolovec-Vranic, Yasmeen Mansoor, Naomi Ennis and David Lightfoot
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:42
  23. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating disease that leads to important morbidity and mortality in a young patient population. Anemia following aSAH is common and may be exacerbated by the t...

    Authors: Shane W English, Michaël Chassé, Alexis F Turgeon, Alan Tinmouth, Amélie Boutin, Giuseppe Pagliarello, Dean Fergusson and Lauralyn McIntyre
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:41
  24. The lifetime prevalence of major depression is estimated to affect 17% of the population and is considered the second largest health-care problem globally in terms of the number of years lived with disability....

    Authors: Jesper Krogh, Helene Speyer, Christian Gluud and Merete Nordentoft
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:40
  25. Hitting a dental root during the insertion of orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs) is a common adverse effect of this intervention. This condition can permanently damage these structures and can cause implant inst...

    Authors: Reint Meursinge Reynders, Luisa Ladu, Laura Ronchi, Nicola Di Girolamo, Jan de Lange, Nia Roberts and Annette Plüddemann
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:39
  26. Medical devices have improved the treatment of many medical conditions. Despite their benefit, the use of devices can lead to unintended incidents, potentially resulting in unnecessary harm, injury or complica...

    Authors: Julie Polisena, Anna Gagliardi, David Urbach, Tammy Clifford and Michelle Fiander
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:37
  27. The United Kingdom (UK) and wider world are experiencing an obesity epidemic, with lower socio-economic groups disproportionately affected. Dietary quality is also socio-economically patterned, with an estimat...

    Authors: Susanna Mills, Martin White, Shannon Robalino, Wendy Wrieden, Heather Brown and Jean Adams
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:35
  28. In the Western world, dietary supplements are commonly used to prevent chronic diseases, mainly cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, there is inconsistent evidence on which dietary supplements actually ...

    Authors: Lukas Schwingshackl, Georg Hoffmann, Brian Buijsse, Tamara Mittag, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Heiner Boeing, Marion Gottschald, Stefan Dietrich, Maria Arregui and Sofia Dias
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:34
  29. The clinical presentation of panic disorder and panic attack overlaps many symptoms typically experienced in coronary heart disease (CHD). Etiological links between panic disorder and CHD are controversial and...

    Authors: Phillip J Tully, Gary A Wittert, Deborah A Turnbull, John F Beltrame, John D Horowitz, Suzanne Cosh and Harald Baumeister
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:33
  30. Recognition that ascending infection leads to preterm birth has led to a number of studies that have evaluated the treatment of vaginal infections in pregnancy to reduce preterm birth rates. However, the role ...

    Authors: Christine L Roberts, Charles S Algert, Kristen L Rickard and Jonathan M Morris
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:31
  31. A myocardial infarction (MI) (‘heart attack’) can be intensely stressful, and the impact of this event can leave patients with clinically significant post-MI stress symptoms. Untreated stress can make heart di...

    Authors: Jenny Jones, Paul Kane, Rob Polson, Stephen J Leslie, Nicholas J Hulbert-Williams, Sébastien Simard, Gozde Ozakinci and Gill Hubbard
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:10
  32. Chiropractic care is a common treatment for low back pain (LBP). Previous studies have failed to clarify the relative cost-effectiveness of chiropractic care in comparison with other commonly used approaches b...

    Authors: Marc-André Blanchette, André Bussières, Mette Jensen Stochkendahl, Jill Boruff and Pamela Harrison
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:30
  33. Preoperative anemia is a common and potentially serious hematological problem in elective surgery and increases the risk for perioperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Transfusion is associated with posto...

    Authors: Abdelsalam M Elhenawy, Steven R Meyer, Sean M Bagshaw, Roderick G MacArthur and Linda J Carroll
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:29
  34. Individuals with chronic diseases may have difficulty optimizing their health and getting the care they need due to a combination of patient, provider, and health system level barriers. Patient navigator progr...

    Authors: Elizabeth Kelly, Noah Ivers, Rami Zawi, Lianne Barnieh, Braden Manns, Diane L Lorenzetti, David Nicholas, Marcello Tonelli, Brenda Hemmelgarn, Richard Lewanczuk, Alun Edwards, Ted Braun and Kerry A McBrien
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:28
  35. Many parents consider fever a disease in itself and feel disempowered when their child is ill. Numerous guidelines have been produced; however, their target audience remains healthcare professionals and not ca...

    Authors: Maria Kelly, Laura J Sahm, Frances Shiely, Ronan O’Sullivan, Maria Brenner, Philip Larkin and Suzanne McCarthy
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:27
  36. Health care decision makers often need to make decisions in limited timeframes and cannot await the completion of a full evidence review. Rapid reviews (RRs), utilizing streamlined systematic review methods, a...

    Authors: Julie Polisena, Chantelle Garritty, Chris Kamel, Adrienne Stevens and Ahmed M Abou-Setta
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:26
  37. There is currently no mechanism in place outside of government to provide rapid syntheses of the best available research evidence about problems, options and/or implementation considerations related to a speci...

    Authors: Michael G Wilson, John N Lavis and Francois-Pierre Gauvin
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:25
  38. Indoor air pollution (IAP) interventions are widely promoted as a means of reducing indoor air pollution/health from solid fuel use; and research addressing impact of these interventions has increased substant...

    Authors: Reginald Quansah, Caroline A Ochieng, Sean Semple, Sanjar Juvekar, Jacques Emina, Frederick Ato Armah and Isaac Luginaah
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:22
  39. Vortioxetine is the first mixed serotonin agonist and antagonist antidepressant approved in the US. We sought to evaluate all published and unpublished data available to determine the efficacy and harms of vor...

    Authors: Amanda S Meeker, Megan C Herink, Dean G Haxby and Daniel M Hartung
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:21
  40. The aims of antenatal education are broad and encompass outcomes related to pregnancy, birth, and parenthood. Both form and content of antenatal education have changed over time without evidence of effects on ...

    Authors: Carina Sjöberg Brixval, Solveig Forberg Axelsen, Stine Glenstrup Lauemøller, Stig Krøger Andersen, Pernille Due and Vibeke Koushede
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:20
  41. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of children and adolescents, with a significant impact on health services and the community in terms of ec...

    Authors: Ferrán Catalá-López, Brian Hutton, Amparo Núñez-Beltrán, Alain D Mayhew, Matthew J Page, Manuel Ridao, Aurelio Tobías, Miguel A Catalá, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos and David Moher
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:19
  42. A peer-reviewed journal would not survive without the generous time and insightful comments of the reviewers, whose efforts often go unrecognized. Although final decisions are always editorial, they are greatl...

    Authors: David Moher, Paul Shekelle and Lesley A Stewart
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:94

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Systematic Reviews 2015 4:100

  43. Worldwide, approximately 12% of children under the age of 5 are either overweight or obese. As many young children spend 30 h or more per week in childcare centres with childcare educators. Targeting childcare...

    Authors: Stéphanie Ward, Mathieu Bélanger, Denise Donovan, Amanda Horsman and Natalie Carrier
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:18

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