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  1. Self-efficacy is developed through a person’s interaction with his/her physical and social environment. Self-efficacy in caring is an essential attribute of care workers to develop a positive attitude towards ...

    Authors: Sumina Shrestha, Rayan Jafnan M. Alharbi, Christine While, Julie Ellis, Muhammad Aziz Rahman and Yvonne Wells

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:105

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  2. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a significant public health problem affecting a large proportion of the population and is associated with adverse health consequences and a substantial economic burden. Despit...

    Authors: Andrea N. Natsky, Andrew Vakulin, Ching Li Chai Coetzer, R. D. McEvoy, Robert J. Adams and Billingsley Kaambwa

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:104

    Content type: Protocol

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  3. The determination of CA 15-3 is useful for monitoring breast cancer patients. Several retrospective studies determined CA 15-3 levels in frozen samples to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of novel biom...

    Authors: Luigi Coppola, Alessandra Cianflone, Katia Pane, Monica Franzese, Peppino Mirabelli and Marco Salvatore

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:102

    Content type: Research

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  4. The aim of our study was to determine through a systematic review and meta-analysis the incubation period of COVID-19. It was conducted based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-an...

    Authors: Wafa Dhouib, Jihen Maatoug, Imen Ayouni, Nawel Zammit, Rim Ghammem, Sihem Ben Fredj and Hassen Ghannem

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:101

    Content type: Systematic review update

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  5. Alcohol consumption is a key public health challenge in sub-Saharan Africa, which has the highest burden of alcohol attributable injury and disease of any region. Excess alcohol use is particularly harmful for...

    Authors: Eleanor Briegal, Alice M. Biggane and Angela I. Obasi

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:100

    Content type: Protocol

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  6. The Reporting Items for Practice Guidelines in Healthcare (RIGHT) checklist was used to assess the reporting quality of 2009–2019 clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) regarding gout and hyperuricemia, aimed to ...

    Authors: Can Wang, Xufei Luo, Maichao Li, Lingling Cui, Xinde Li, Lin Han, Xuefeng Wang, Wei Ren, Yuwei He, Wenyan Sun, Changgui Li, Yaolong Chen and Zhen Liu

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:99

    Content type: Systematic review update

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  7. Accepted systematic review (SR) methodology requires citation screening by two reviewers to maximise retrieval of eligible studies. We hypothesized that records could be excluded by a single reviewer without l...

    Authors: Nassr Nama, Mirna Hennawy, Nick Barrowman, Katie O’Hearn, Margaret Sampson and James Dayre McNally

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:98

    Content type: Research

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  8. Systematic Reviews (SR), studies of studies, use a formal process to evaluate the quality of scientific literature and determine ensuing effectiveness from qualifying articles to establish consensus findings a...

    Authors: John Zimmerman, Robin E. Soler, James Lavinder, Sarah Murphy, Charisma Atkins, LaShonda Hulbert, Richard Lusk and Boon Peng Ng

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:97

    Content type: Methodology

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  9. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. The main symptoms of DPN include numbness or pain in both extremities and paresthesia (such as formica...

    Authors: Lin Lin, Jingjing Li, Jingshan Lin, Shiheng Tang and Yuxia Li

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:96

    Content type: Protocol

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  10. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of pre-, pro-, and synbiotics on feeding tolerance of enterally fed critically ill adult patients.

    Authors: Najmeh Seifi, Ali Jafarzadeh Esfahani, Alireza Sedaghat, Reza Rezvani, Majid Khadem-Rezaiyan, Mohsen Nematy and Mohammad Safarian

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:95

    Content type: Research

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  11. Letters are regularly sent by healthcare organisations to healthcare professionals to encourage them to take action, change practice or implement guidance. However, whether letters are an effective tool in del...

    Authors: Aikaterini Grimani, Louis Goffe, Mei Yee Tang, Fiona Beyer, Falko F. Sniehotta and Ivo Vlaev

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:94

    Content type: Protocol

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  12. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses provide the highest level of evidence to help inform policy and practice, yet their rigorous nature is associated with significant time and economic demands. The screening ...

    Authors: Kevin E. K. Chai, Robin L. J. Lines, Daniel F. Gucciardi and Leo Ng

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:93

    Content type: Methodology

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  13. Individuals with severe mental illness, e.g. schizophrenia have up to a 20% shortened life expectancy compared to the general population. Cardiovascular disease, due to cardiometabolic risk and metabolic syndr...

    Authors: Dolly Sud, Eileen Laughton, Robyn McAskill, Eleanor Bradley and Ian Maidment

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:92

    Content type: Research

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  14. In a cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT), randomisation units are “clusters” such as schools or GP practices. This has methodological implications for study design and statistical analysis, since cluste...

    Authors: Benjamin G. Jones, Adam J. Streeter, Amy Baker, Rana Moyeed and Siobhan Creanor

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:91

    Content type: Research

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  15. Group A Streptococcus (Strep A) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity globally. This bacterium is responsible for a range of different infections and post-infectious sequelae. Summarising the current k...

    Authors: Dylan D. Barth, Jessica Daw, Ruomei Xu, Stephanie Enkel, Janessa Pickering, Tracy McRae, Mark E. Engel, Jonathan Carapetis, Rosemary Wyber and Asha C. Bowen

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:90

    Content type: Protocol

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  16. Authors: Matthew J. Page, Joanne E. McKenzie, Patrick M. Bossuyt, Isabelle Boutron, Tammy C. Hoffmann, Cynthia D. Mulrow, Larissa Shamseer, Jennifer M. Tetzlaff, Elie A. Akl, Sue E. Brennan, Roger Chou, Julie Glanville, Jeremy M. Grimshaw, Asbjørn Hróbjartsson, Manoj M. Lalu, Tianjing Li…

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:89

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Editorial to this article has been published in Systematic Reviews 2021 10:117

  17. Harmful alcohol use is a leading risk to the health of populations worldwide. Within Africa, where most consumers are adolescents, alcohol use represents a key public health challenge. Interventions to prevent...

    Authors: Alice M. Biggane, Eleanor Briegal and Angela Obasi

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:88

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  18. Skilled birth attendance (SBA) during delivery has been associated with improved maternal health outcome. However, low utilisation of SBA during childbirth has continued in many developing countries including Z.....

    Authors: Choolwe Jacobs and Adnan A. Hyder

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:87

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  19. Whilst there is little uncertainty about the deleterious impact of pollution on human and planetary health, pollution’s impact on adolescent mental health is less well understood. This is particularly true for...

    Authors: Linda C. Theron, Yael Abreu-Villaça, Marcus Augusto-Oliveira, Caroline H. Brennan, Maria Elena Crespo-Lopez, Gabriela de Paula Arrifano, Lilah Glazer, Liyuan Lin, Isabelle Mareschal, Luke Sartori, Liesl Stieger, Andres Trotta and Kristin Hadfield

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:85

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  20. Homonymous visual field defects represent the most frequent type of visual field loss after stroke, affecting nearly 30% of individuals with unilateral post-chiasmal brain damage. This review aimed to gather t...

    Authors: Adel Elfeky, Kristiaan D’Août, Rebecca Lawson, Lauren R. Hepworth, Nicholas D. A. Thomas, Abigail Clynch and Fiona J. Rowe

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:84

    Content type: Research

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  21. Frailty is a known risk factor for an array of adverse outcomes including more frequent and prolonged health services use and high health care costs. Aging of the population has implications for care provision...

    Authors: Carmel L. Montgomery, Gareth Hopkin, Sean M. Bagshaw, Erin Hessey and Darryl B. Rolfson

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:83

    Content type: Protocol

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  22. Inter-organisational collaboration is increasingly prominent within contemporary healthcare systems. A range of collaboration types such as alliances, networks, and mergers have been proposed as a means to tur...

    Authors: Justin Avery Aunger, Ross Millar, Joanne Greenhalgh, Russell Mannion, Anne-Marie Rafferty and Hugh McLeod

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:82

    Content type: Research

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  23. Our objective was to estimate the change in community-based education interventions throughout the world that may effectuate in risk parameters of type II diabetes (T2D), including the diabetes incidence rate,...

    Authors: Tayebeh Shirvani, Zeinab Javadivala, Somayeh Azimi, Abdolreza Shaghaghi, Zahra Fathifar, H. D. R. Devender Bhalla, Mohammadhiwa Abdekhoda and Haidar Nadrian

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:81

    Content type: Systematic review update

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  24. The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic was reported from Wuhan, China, on December 31, 2019, and the pandemic was spread to more than 212 countries in the globe. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the pooled inci...

    Authors: Sofonyas Abebaw Tiruneh, Zemenu Tadese Tesema, Melkalem Mamuye Azanaw and Dessie Abebaw Angaw

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:80

    Content type: Systematic review update

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  25. The nature and existence of free will have been debated for centuries. Since some psychiatric disorders are known to interfere with one’s ability to control their actions and thoughts (e.g., schizophrenia), th...

    Authors: Maria E. Moreira-de-Oliveira, Gabriela B. de Menezes, Samara dos Santos-Ribeiro, Luana D. Laurito, Ana P. Ribeiro, Adrian Carter and Leonardo F. Fontenelle

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:78

    Content type: Systematic review update

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  26. Even when resting pulse oximetry is normal in the patient with acute Covid-19, hypoxia can manifest on exertion. We summarise the literature on the performance of different rapid tests for exertional desaturat...

    Authors: Asli Kalin, Babak Javid, Matthew Knight, Matt Inada-Kim and Trisha Greenhalgh

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:77

    Content type: Research

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  27. Most psychiatric disorders have their onset in childhood or adolescence, and if not fully treated have the potential for causing life-long psycho-social and physical sequelae. Effective psychotherapeutic and m...

    Authors: Yael D. Lewis, Lucy Gallop, Iain C. Campbell and Ulrike Schmidt

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:76

    Content type: Protocol

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  28. Though many studies have discussed the impact of health insurance on access to medical services, few have considered Western Africa. Despite decades of targeted efforts, West Africa has the most elevated mater...

    Authors: Joshua Dadjo, Olumuyiwa Omonaiye and Sanni Yaya

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:74

    Content type: Protocol

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  29. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused recurring and major outbreaks in multiple human populations around the world. The plethora of clinical presentations of severe acute respiratory synd...

    Authors: Rosemond Qian-Xiu Tan, Wai Tak Victor Li, Wing-Zi Shum, Sheung Chit Chu, Hang-Long Li, Yat-Fung Shea and Tom Wai-Hin Chung

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:73

    Content type: Protocol

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  30. Migraines are a chronic disease for millions worldwide and have been hypothesized to be hormonally mediated due to their higher prevalence in females and menstrual associations. Estrogen has been commonly impl...

    Authors: Nihaal Reddy, Miraj N. Desai, Anna Schoenbrunner, Steven Schneeberger and Jeffrey E. Janis

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:72

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. There is an unresolved debate about the reliability of the interpretation of P value. Some investigators have suggested that an alternative Bayesian method is preferred in conducting health research. As randomize...

    Authors: Alex Aregbesola, Allison Gates, Amanda Coyle, Shannon Sim, Ben Vandermeer, Megan Skakum, Despina Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Anna Heath, Lisa Hartling and Terry P. Klassen

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:71

    Content type: Protocol

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  32. The term temporomandibular disorder (TMD) includes disorders of the temporomandibular joints (TMJ), masticatory muscles and adjacent tissues. Several studies have examined the effectiveness of manual therapy (...

    Authors: Giacomo Asquini, Alison Rushton, Laurent Pitance, Nicola Heneghan and Deborah Falla

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:70

    Content type: Protocol

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  33. Midazolam is used for sedation before diagnostic and therapeutic medical procedures by several routes including oral, intravenous, intranasal and intramuscular. This is an update of a Cochrane review published...

    Authors: Aaron Conway, Kristina Chang, Sebastian Mafeld and Joanna Sutherland

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:69

    Content type: Systematic review update

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  34. The care of the emergency department (ED) for a person after a suicide attempt can act as a protector against future suicidal behavior. For this reason, it is essential that the ED ensure an assistance that in...

    Authors: Ana Paula Coutinho da Silva, Margarida Rangel Henriques, Inês Areal Rothes, Tiago Zortea, José Carlos Santos and Pim Cuijpers

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:68

    Content type: Protocol

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  35. Waiting lists are an ongoing issue for publicly funded community and hospital-based health services. Parents and caregivers are instrumental supports in the health and well-being of young and school-aged child...

    Authors: C. Bernie, M. Mitchell, K. Williams and T. May

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:67

    Content type: Protocol

    Published on:

  36. Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide, and 53.4% of stroke survivors suffer from post-stroke cognitive impairment. Post-stroke cognitive impairment can increase hospitalization rate and cost of...

    Authors: Qing Zhao, Xue Wang, Tao Wang, Adam A. Dmytriw, Xiao Zhang, Kun Yang, Jichang Luo, Xuesong Bai, Nan Jiang, Bin Yang, Yan Ma, Liqun Jiao and Yunyan Xie

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:66

    Content type: Protocol

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  37. Length of stay (LOS) for inpatient psychiatric services is an important factor with serious drawbacks when it is extended more than needed. Impacts on economy, social functioning, and stigma can hamper improve...

    Authors: Farid Carranza Navarro, Neri Alejandro Álvarez Villalobos, Andrea Muriel Contreras Muñoz, Andrea Fernanda Guerrero Medrano, Natalia Sofía Tamayo Rodríguez and Erasmo Saucedo Uribe

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:65

    Content type: Protocol

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  38. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetically inherited, life-limiting condition, affecting ~90,000 people globally. Physical activity (PA) and exercise form an integral component of CF management, and have been highl...

    Authors: Owen W. Tomlinson, Sarah Denford, Alan R. Barker, Jane E. Schneiderman, Emma S. Campisi, Helen Douglas, Sarah Rand, Melitta A. McNarry, Kelly A. Mackintosh and Craig A. Williams

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:64

    Content type: Protocol

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  39. Antidepressant medicines are used to manage symptoms of low back pain. The efficacy, acceptability, and safety of antidepressant medicines for low back pain (LBP) are not clear. We aimed to evaluate the effica...

    Authors: Michael C. Ferraro, Matthew K. Bagg, Michael A. Wewege, Aidan G. Cashin, Hayley B. Leake, Rodrigo R. N. Rizzo, Matthew D. Jones, Sylvia M. Gustin, Richard Day, Colleen K. Loo and James H. McAuley

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:62

    Content type: Research

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  40. Health practitioners and researchers must be able to measure and assess maternal care quality in facilities to monitor, intervene, and reduce global maternal mortality rates. On the global scale, there is a ge...

    Authors: Kyrah K. Brown, Godfred O. Boateng, Peace Ossom-Williamson and Laura Haygood

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:61

    Content type: Protocol

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  41. Childhood hypertension is a growing public health problem. Simultaneously, hypovitaminosis D is widespread in this population and could be associated with hypertension. This study systematically reviewed the l...

    Authors: Myriam Abboud, Fatme Al Anouti, Dimitrios Papandreou, Rana Rizk, Nadine Mahboub and Suzan Haidar

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:60

    Content type: Systematic review update

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  42. Globally, very preterm birth is a health concern leading to various developmental difficulties such as poor motor and/or cognitive function. For infants born very preterm, family-centered care (FCC) might prom...

    Authors: Manasa Kolibylu Raghupathy, Bhamini Krishna Rao, Shubha R. Nayak, Alicia J. Spittle and Shradha S. Parsekar

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:59

    Content type: Protocol

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  43. The relationship between cancer with overweight and obesity has been extensively reported. However, the association between urinary cancers with these risk factors remains unclear, with existing reports showin...

    Authors: Jiyuan Shi, Liang Zhao, Ya Gao, Mingming Niu, Meili Yan, Yamin Chen, Ziwei Song, Xueni Ma, Peng Wang and Jinhui Tian

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:58

    Content type: Research

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  44. Obstructed labor accounted for 22% of obstetrical complications and 9% of all maternal deaths in low- and middle-income countries. Even though there are separate studies regarding obstructed labor and its comp...

    Authors: Yordanos Gizachew Yeshitila, Melaku Desta and Abraham Kebede

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:57

    Content type: Protocol

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  45. High tibial osteotomy (HTO) has been used for over 60 years in clinical practice and mainly comprises two major techniques: closed wedge high tibial osteotomy (CWHTO) and open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHT...

    Authors: Mingliang He, Xihong Zhong, Zhong Li, Kun Shen and Wen Zeng

    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2021 10:56

    Content type: Systematic review update

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