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Table 1 Eligibility criteria for meta-analyses

From: Efficacy of homoeopathic treatment: Systematic review of meta-analyses of randomised placebo-controlled homoeopathy trials for any indication





MA of randomised controlled trials, including secondary analyses thereof

Narrative reviews; systematic reviews without quantitative synthesis of treatment effect estimates, MA not based on randomised controlled trials

Patients and settings

Humans, no age restriction, any country, any setting

Veterinary trials, MA restricted to specific age or gender groups


MA covering any indication, disease or symptom

MA restricted to specific indications, indication groups or clinical domains


Homoeopathy, defined as:

a) Prevention or treatment with homoeopathic medicinal productsa, i.e. products manufactured by a method described in a homoeopathic pharmacopoeia (mandatory)

b) Homoeopathic case-taking (optional) [19]

Any other new intervention (but continuation of ongoing therapy does not lead to exclusion)

Homoeopathic case taking without use of homoeopathic medicinal products

MA restricted to specific homoeopathic products or product groups



MA not including placebo-controlled trials


MA of therapeutic benefit, measured by any clinically relevant outcome

MA not including therapeutic benefit (e.g. use or safety only)

Report time frame

MA publications from 1 Jan. 1990 up to 30 Apr. 2023

MA publications after 30 Apr. 2023

Report language

Any language


Publication, general aspects

All three criteria (a–c) must be fulfilled:

a) written and dated reports with identifiable authors

b) which are or have been in the public domain OR have been submitted to a third party

c) with presentation of methods and results in sufficient detail, allowing for assessment of the research questions in a meaningful way


Publication subject

1. Protocol for a MA

2. Primary publication of a MA

3. Additional analyses: all criteria (a–c) must be fulfilled

a) pertaining to a MA included in this systematic review

b) presenting results not included in the primary MA publication

c) contributing to the assessment of the research questions in a meaningful way

  1. MA meta-analysis
  2. aMedicinal products: sometimes the terms ‘remedies’ or ‘medicines’ are used