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Table 2 SDOH domains and constructs

From: Social determinants of health and cancer screening implementation and outcomes in the USA: a systematic review protocol

Economic stability Education access and quality Healthcare access and quality Neighborhood and built environment Social and community context
• Debt
• Employment
• Expenses
• Food insecurity
• Housing instability
• Income
• Income support (e.g., Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP))
• Medical bills
• Poverty and concentrated poverty
• Community educational attainment
• Early childhood education
• High school graduation
• Higher education
• Language and literacy skills
• Vocational training
• Access to primary care
• Affordability
• Cost
• Financial toxicity of healthcare treatments
• Geographical access, proximity, and catchment area
• Health insurance coverage
• Health literacy
• Health policy
• Provider availability
• Provider linguistic and cultural competency
• Quality of care
• Telehealth, telemedicine, and mobile health
• Access to healthy foods to support healthy eating, food swamps, and food deserts
• Broadband, Internet, and Wi-Fi access
• Census tract
• Environmental conditions (e.g., air or water quality)
• Housing quality and pest infestation
• Parks and playgrounds
• Safety
• Transportation
• Walkability
• Adverse childhood experiences
• Bias
• Civic engagement and participation
• Community engagement
• Discriminationa
• Exposure to violence and trauma
• Incarceration and criminal justice system
• Racial and ethnic residential segregation
• Racisma
• Sense of community
• Social capital and networks
• Social cohesion and integration
• Social isolation
• Social support and support systems
• Social vulnerability
• Trust
  1. SDOH constructs were identified and arranged based on established frameworks and definitions from Healthy People [17], the Kaiser Family Foundation [22], the National Institutes of Health PhenX Toolkit [23], relevant literature [19], and expert input. aIn the Kaiser Family Foundation’s “Social and Economic Factors Drive Health Outcomes” model [22], discrimination and racism are positioned as underlying constructs that impact all SDOH domains