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Table 5 Findings for measurement of trust

From: Conceptualising, operationalising, and measuring trust in participatory health research networks: a scoping review

Measurement: how is trust measured?
Themes and sub-themes Description References
Theme M1 Type of measure What type of measures was (survey, scaling, qualitative, unobtrusive) used for trust?
ST M1.1 Survey The type of measurement used to measure trust was a survey. “we drew upon previously validated survey instruments used to measure peer-to-peer trust in classroom settings” [34]
“The web-based survey provided the types of trust with their definitions” [45]
ST M1.2 Scaling A scale was used to measure trust. “The respondents were also asked to rate the level of trust they have that they will be provided with the input they need from each identified other actor (on a similar Likert scale from no trust to full trust)” [31]
ST M1.3 Qualitative The type of measurement technique used to measure trust was qualitative. “The question of trust often led to open-ended responses which were recorded and probed on.” [36]
“In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2015 and September 2016, by phone (n = 28) and in-person (n = 3).” [47]
ST M1.4 Unobtrusive The type of measurement technique used was unobtrusive and thus does not require the researcher to intrude in the research context. “Observations in the US and especially in Malawi helped me understand the context and day to day challenges in Malawi (see Table 4.4 for a description of observations in Malawi).” [48]
Theme M2 Level of measure What level of measurement was used (nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio) to measure trust?
ST M2.1 Nominal Items are named, but are in no specific order. The numbers assigned to it are thus arbitrary. “TRUST: 0 = Did not select respondent 1 = Selected respondent”
“Asked participants to select the most appropriate type of trust at the beginning of their partnership and the current stage of their partnership and to choose the type of trust expected in the future.” [45]
ST M2.2 Ordinal Items can be ordered, such as level of agreement, of low to high degrees of trust. “Scale from 1–4 one being ‘poor relationship/little trust’ and four being “excellent relationship/high trust” [35]
“The scale consisted of self-report items scaled in a five-point Likert scale (1 = completely disagree to 5 = completely agree).” [41]
ST M2.3 Open-ended question There was no forced choice for these questions. “65. What could be done to improve the trust among movement members?” [49]
ST M2.4 Ratio Items are named, but are in no specific order. The numbers assigned to it are thus arbitrary. “Percentage, A 100 % occurs when all members trust others at the highest level” [37]
  1. Legend ST sub-theme, M(#) measurement of trust