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Table 2 Effects of disulfiram on tumor inhibition rates from animal studies

From: Anticancer effects of disulfiram: a systematic review of in vitro, animal, and human studies

Information of reference Information of animals Intervention and tumor inhibition rate Toxicity evaluation
Reference Country Tumor Strain and gender Old (weeks) Weight (g) Animal tumor model Intervention methods Negative control Positive control Treatment group Inhibit Rate Parameter Outcome
Peng et al. China Lung cancer Female Balb/C nude mice 4−5 18−22 1.0 × 106 A549 cells, SC, right flank Every 4 days with 4 times, iv Saline _ DSF 10 mg/kg + copper 1.5 mg/kg ig PNpL-DSF/Cu(II)/DDC (1:1, 1mg/kg) TSR% = 16.6% TSR% = 51.6% No significant weight loss Low
Parikshit et al. China Breast cancer Female Balb/C nude mice 4−5 18 ± 2 1.0 × 105 4T1 cells, SC, left armpit Every 3 days with 6 times, iv Saline _ DSF 15 mg/kg
DSF-NLC 15 mg/kg
TPGS-DSF-NLC 15 mg/kg
TGI% = 8.49%. TGI% = 29.2% TGI% = 48.24% No noticeable body weight loss Safety
Ji et al. China Breast cancer Female Balb/C nude mice _ 20 ± 2 8.0 × 105 4T1 cells, SC, right flank Everyday with 2 weeks, iv or every day with 2 weeks, ig Saline PTX (8mg/kg)
TSR% = 55.01%
DSF 20 mg/kg ig
DSF-NSps 20 mg/kg ig
DSF-NSps 20 mg/kg iv
DSF-NSps 10 mg/kg iv
DSF-NSps 5 mg/kg, iv
TSR% = 0% TSR% = 59.03% TSR% = 80% TSR% = 75.86% TSR% = 69.21% Weight increased slightly _
Zhou et al. China Liver cancer KunMing mice 5–6 _ 1.5 × 107 H-22 cells, SC, left axilla Every 3 days with 4 times, iv Saline 5-FU
(20 mg/kg )
TIR% = 47.4%
DSF NPs 3 mg/mL
DSF NPs 40 mg/kg + Cu(OI)2-S 0.3 mg/kg
DSF NPs 40 mg/kg + Cu(OI)2-L 0.3 mg/kg
TIR% = 26.8% TIR% = 35.5% TIR% = 50.3% _ _
Tao et al. China Breast cancer Female Balb/C nude mice _ 20 ± 2 3.0 × 106 4T1 cells, SC, right flank Every 2 days with 4 times, iv Saline DOX
(5 mg/kg )
TIR% = 68.27%
DSF 5 mg/kg
DOX 5 mg/kg +DSF 5 mg/kg
Co-NPs (DOX 5 mg/kg + DSF 5 mg/kg)
TIR% = 34.81% TIR% = 80.92% TIR% = 89.27% No significant difference in body weight change Safety
Song et al. China Lung cancer Female Balb/C nude mice 6 20.0 2.0 × 106 A549DDP cells, SC, right flank Every 2 days with 4 times, iv Saline _ PGA-CisPt 5.0 mg/kg
PGA-CisPt 5.0 mg/kg+ NPs-DSF 10.mg/kg
TSR% = 45.6% TSR% = 75.4% No body weight changes Safety
Hamidreza et al. Iran Breast cancer Female Balb/C nude mice 5 _ 1.0 × 106 4T1 cells, mammary fat pad 2 weeks, iv Blank NPs _ DFS 10 mg/kg
DS-P-NPs 10 mg/kg
DS-PPF-NPs 10 mg/kg
TSR% = 17.07% TSR% = 66.67% TSR% = 75% DS-P-NPs, DS-PPF-NPs groups more reduction weight than the DSF No sign
Song et al. China Breast cancer Balb/C mice 5-6 _ 2.0 × 106 4T1 cells, SC, right flank Every 2 days with 6 times, iv Saline _ DSF 15 mg/kg
NP4/5/1 15 mg/kg
TSR% = 0
TSR% = 43.2%
No obvious body weight loss Safety
Jennifer et al. USA Breast tumor Female SCID mice _ _ 1.0 × 106 SUM149 cells, SC, flank Daily, iv Vehicle _ DSF 50 mg/kg
DSF 50 mg/kg + Cu 0.5 mg/kg
TIR% = 75%
TIR% = 84%
No noticeable body weight change _
Choi et al. Korea Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors Female Balb/C nude mice 7 _ 1.0 ×104 AT/RT cells, SC, _ Every 5 consecutive days with 3 weeks, ip DMSO _ DSF 100 mg/kg TSR% = 72.25% _ No major
Vino et al. China Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Female Balb/C nude mice 5 _ 0.5 × 106 AB12 cells, SC, right flanks Daily with 17 days, ip Vehicle _ DSF/Cu 50 mg/kg TSR% = 71.5% Weight of DSF-Cu group was 75% lower than that of vehicle group _
  1. Abbreviations: DOX Doxorubicin, Cis Cisplatin, 5-Fu 5-fluorouracil, V Volume, L Length=longest diameter of the tumor, W Width=shortest diameter of the tumor, SC Subcutaneous, iv Intravenous injection, TGI Tumor growth inhibition rate—TGI% = [(Vc1-Vt1)/(Vc0-Vt0)]×100%, TIR Tumor inhibition rate—TIR% = [(Vc-Vx)/Vc] ×100%, TSR Tumor suppression rate—TSR% = [(Vc-Vx)/Vc] ×100%, Vc Mean tumor volume of the negative control group, Vt Mean tumor volume of certain administration group, Vc1 Mean tumor volume in the negative control group at the time of tumor extraction, Vt1 Mean tumor volume in the treatment groups at the time of tumor extraction, Vc0 Mean tumor volumes in the negative control group, Vt 0 Mean tumor volumes in the treatment group, NPs Nanoparticles, NSps Nanosuspensions, NLC Nanostructured lipid carriers, TPGS D-alpha-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate, PNpL-DSF/Cu Polymeric nanoparticles loading copper(II) diethyldithiocarbamate (DSF/Cu 1:1), Cu(OI)2-S Administration of copper oleate solution, Cu(OI)2-L Administration of copper oleate liposome, NP4/5/1 The feed ratio of mPEG-PLGA/PCL/DSF was 4/5/1 in mass, PLGA Poly(lactide-co-glycolide), PEG Poly(ethyleneglycol), mPEG-PLGA Methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide-co-glycolide), PCL Polycaprolactone, DCC N,N′ -Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, DCM Dichloromethane, NHS Sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide, DS-PPF-NPs Disulfiram encapsulated PLGA PEG-folate NPs, DS-P-NPs Disulfiram encapsulated PLGA NPs