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Table 1 Effects of disulfiram on cell apoptosis rates from in vitro studies

From: Anticancer effects of disulfiram: a systematic review of in vitro, animal, and human studies

Reference Country Tumor Percentage of apoptosis (%)
Intervention time Negative control Posivitive control Cell lines Negative control Positive control Treatment group
You et al. China Colorectal cancer 48 h Saline DOX (8.5 μM) HCT116 0.27 ± 0.24 29.2 ± 4.1 DSF/Cu 0.05 μM: 8.55 ± 2.3, 0.1 μM: 24.02 ± 3.6, 0.2 μM: 38.4 ± 7.9, 0.4 μM: 58.3 ± 7.7
HCT8 2.1±1.6 32.3 ± 4.1 DSF/Cu 0.05 μM: 29.5 ± 4.4, 0.1 μM: 28.1 ± 9.5, 0.2 μM: 38.6 ± 10.3, 0.4 μM: 56.4 ± 10.2
SW620 2.21±0.5 48.4 ± 9.5 DSF/Cu 0.05 μM: 20.1±5.7, 0.1 μM: 30 ± 4.2, 0.2 μM: 42 ± 6.3, 0.4 μM: 43.45 ± 8.3
Yang et al. Germany Breast cancer 48 h Control CIS (5 μM) MCF-7 25.31 31.67 DSF 1 μM: 36.6, DSF 1 μM + CIS 5 μM: 57.4
MDA-MB-435S 5.843 5.447 DSF 1 μM: 13.56, DSF 1 μM + CIS 5 μM: 29.4
SKB-R3 3.023 11.46 DSF 1 μM: 5.6, DSF 1 μM + CIS 5 μM: 7.71
Wu et al. China Triple-negative breast cancer 24 h DMSO PAX (5 nM) SUM102 ALDH+ 2.22 5.83 DSF/Cu 0.75 μM: 23.53
SUM102 ALDH- 8.01 10.81 DSF/Cu 0.75 μM: 20.9
Guo et al. Germany Ovarian cancer 72 h Control _ IGROV1 10.32 _ Cu 1 μM: 15.3, DSF 1 μM: 25.46, DSF/Cu: 47.55
SKOV3IP1 8.69 Cu 1 μM: 7.1, DSF 0.1 μM: 15.99, DSF/Cu: 55
SKOV3 3.65 Cu 1 μM: 1.91, DSF 1 μM: 43.2, DSF/Cu: 50.4
Wu et al. China Non-small cell lung cancer 24 h Control _ A549 2.5 _ Cu 1 μM: 3.8, DSF 1.4 μM: 4.8, DSF/Cu: 35.4
H460 4.7 Cu 1 μM: 3.7, DSF 8 μM: 4.9, DSF/Cu: 21.4
H1299 8.7 Cu 1 μM: 10.3, DSF 4 μM: 7.1, DSF/Cu: 37.9
Chen et al. China Non-small cell lung cancer 24 h Control _ A549 3.35 _ Ag 1.25 μM: 4.34, DSF 1.25 μM: 5.14, DSF/Ag: 42.81
Butcher et al. UK Non-small cell lung cancer 16 h Vehicle _ A549 6.3 _ CuCl2 10 μM: 6.5, DSF 1 μM: 15.2, DSF/CuCL2: 47.2
Albers et al. Germany Head and neck squamous 48 h Control CIS (1μM)+10Gy HNSCC cell lines 11.35 CIS 1 μM: 24.12, 10Gy: 23.47 DSF 3 μM/Cu 0.1 μM: 20.87, DSF 3 μM + CIS 1 μM: 38.35, DSF 3 μM/Cu 0.1 μM + CIS 1 μM: 51
cell carcinoma CIS 1 μM + 10Gy: 30.68 DSF 3 μM: 17.66, CIS 1 μM + 10Gy+ DSF 3 μM: 44.82, CIS 1 μM + 10Gy+ DSF 3 μM/Cu 0.1 μM: 61.5
Yang et al. China Nasopharyngeal cancer 6 h Control _ CNE-2Z 4.41 _ DSF 0.2 μM/Cu 10 μM: 24.08, DSF 0.4 μM/Cu 10 μM: 58.2
NP69-SV40T 0.55 _ DSF 0.2 μM/Cu 10 μM: 1.19, DSF 0.4 μM/Cu 10 μM: 5.99
Marwa et al. Egypt Colon cancer 72 h Control _ DCECs 1.58 _ DSF 9.5 ± 0.9 μg/mL: 60.31 ± 1.2, UC-NPs 1548.7 ± 25 μg/mL: 12.12 ± 0.47, C-NPs 3122.4 ± 39 μg/mL: 2.6 ± 0.07
CDCECs 0.28 _ DSF 23.9 ± 0.1 μg/mL: 57.78 ± 0.34, UC-NPs 77.7 ± 1.4 μg/mL: 54.75 ± 1.24, C-NPs 93.8 ± 0.4 μg/mL: 47.5 ± 0.31
Caco-2 0.05 _ DSF 39.6 ± 0.3 μg/mL: 53.62 ± 0.53, UC-NPs 97.9 ± 0.5 μg/mL: 53.49 ± 0.59, C-NPs 148.3 ± 0.1 μg/mL: 40.28 ± 0.24
Wang et al. China Non-small cell lung cancer 24 h Control _ A549 0.45 _ DSF-LP-PLGA-MP 1, 3, 5, 7days: 9.32, 27.1, 28.2, 49.18
Yang et al. China Breast cancer 24 h Control _ MCF-7 0.29 _ DSF 0.2 μM/CuCl2 10 μM: 27.56, DSF 0.25μM/CuCl2 10 μM: 86.8
Kim et al. Korea HER2-positive breast cancer 24 h DMSO _ SKBR3 3.16 _ Cu 1 μM: 2.91, DSF 1 μM: 2.6, DSF/Cu: 30.21
BT474 2.49 _ Cu 1 μM: 2.88, DSF 1 μM: 8, DSF/Cu: 40.76
Sharma et al. India Prostatic cancer 48 h Control STA (3mM) PC3 8.34±2.2 26.31±5.5 DSF 1 μM: 15.04±3.14, DSF 2 μM: 19.71±4.2, DSF 3 μM: 32.06±6.16
DU145 13.67±2.66 41.31±4.47 DSF 1 μM: 10.89±1.56, DSF 2 μM: 42.81±4.56, DSF 3 μM: 47.23±4.85
Zhao et al. China Pituitary adenomas 24 h Control TMZ (100μM) Pituitary adenoma cells 0.29±0.09 0.81±0.23 DSF 25 μM: 0.31±0.10, DSF 25 μM + TMZ 100 μM: 1.64±0.16
Zhang et al. China Hepatocellular carcinoma 24 h Control _ Hep G2 cells 1.3 _ DSF-S-LNCs (PH = 7.4) : 9.4, DSF-S-LNCs (PH = 6.5) : 16.5
Duan et al. China Breast cancer 24 h Control _ 4T1 1.07 _ DSF 1 μg: 34.77, DnMs (DSF 1 μg): 34.37, DCM (DSF 1 μg): 41.11
Rezk et al. USA Ovarian cancer 72 h Control _ A2780DK 4.15 _ DSF 5 μM: 36.4
Dastjerdi et al. Iran Pancreatic cancer 24 h Control _ PANC-1 27 _ DSF 5 μM: 51, DSF 10 μM: 84, DSF 13 μM: 92
Han et al. China Pancreatic cancer 72 h Control _ SW1990 1.5 _ DDTC–Cu(I) 1 μM: 6.4, DDTC–Cu(I) 3 μM: 17.7, DDTC–Cu(I) 5 μM: 24.8
Cen et al. USA Melanoma 48 h Control BSO (100M) C81-46A 12.057±0.72 13.194±1.11 DSF 50 ng/ml: 25.35 ± 1.21, DSF 50 ng/ml + BSO 100 M: 54.78 ± 2.83
  1. Abbreviations: DOX Doxorubicin, CIS Cisplatin, PTX Paclitacel, STA Staurosporine, TMZ Temozolomide, BSO Buthionine-sulfoximine, DnMs DSF-loaded noncrosslinked micelles, DCM DSF-loaded redoxsensitive shell crosslinked micelle, DSF-LP-PLGA-MP Disulfiram-loaded porous PLGA microparticle, UC-NPs Uncoated NPs, C-NP Coated NPs, DDTC–Cu(I) Diethyldithiocarbamate-Cu(I)