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Table 3 Subgroup analyses by impact of RT-PCR based assays on lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) versus upper middle-income countries (UMICs). We will assess sources of data to these graders

From: Paediatric tuberculosis diagnosis using Mycobacterium tuberculosis real-time polymerase chain reaction assay: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Test property Summary of measure test accuracya (95%) Test of heterogeneity
Lower-MICs
(n = 8; b 2047)
AUC = 0.99
  χ2
(d.f. = 7)
l2 p value
Sensitivity 65 (58–72) 44.28 84.20 < 0.001
Specificity 99 (99–99 10.46 33.10 0.1639
Positive likelihood ratio (PLR) 86.61 (46.72–160.53) 5.97 0.0 0.5432
Negative likelihood ratio (NLR) 0.367 0.233–0.578 29.54 76.30 < 0.001
Diagnostic odd ratio (DOR) 311.43 (106.76–908.51) 11.25 37.8 0.1280
Upper-MICs
(n = 12; b 3487)
AUC = 0.99
  χ2
(d.f. = 11)
l2 p value
Sensitivity 68 (63–73) 197.71 94.40 < 0.001
Specificity 97 (96–98) 291.40 96.20 < 0.001
Positive likelihood ratio (PLR) 80.90 (10.31–634.9) 247.81 95.6 < 0.001
Negative likelihood ratio (NLR) 0.20 (0.09–0.42) 228.53 95.2 < 0.001
Diagnostic odd ratio (DOR) 522.72 (107.04–2552.8) 50.80 78.30 < 0.001
  1. aRandom effects model, χ2 chi-squared, d.f. degree of freedom, I2 I-squared, b number of specimens, n number of studies, CI confidence interval, AUC area under receiver operating characteristics curve, PTB pulmonary tuberculosis, EPTB extra-pulmonary tuberculosis