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Table 1: Summary of included papers

From: Detecting signs of deterioration in young patients with serious mental illness: a systematic review

Author and country Design Participants Indicator of deterioration Outcome measure Main findings NOS assessment score
Cotton et al. [26]
Cohort 661
Aged 15–29 years
Cognitive functioning (decline/stable) Treatment reduction or discontinuation Number of admissions Decline in cognitive functioning predicts a higher number of hospital admissions Poor
Gonzalez-Blanch et al. [27] Spain Cohort 63
Aged 15–25
First episode psychosis
Expressed emotion status (high/low) Cannabis use Cannabis use was significantly related to high expressed emotion Poor
Gunnell et al. [28]
Cohort 186808
Aged 16
Serious mental illness diagnosis varied
Cognitive functioning (poor school performance) Deaths by suicide Poor school performance at aged 16 was not significantly associated with suicide risk Good
Lambert et al. [29]
Cohort 786
Aged 15–29
First-episode psychosis
Worsening cognitive functioning Medication-adherence/refusal Non-adherent patients had worse outcomes. More likely to be disengaged from services, not in remission of symptoms and have worse severity of illness. Poor
Linszen et al. [30] Netherlands Cohort 97
Aged 15–26 years
Schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders, schizophreniform disorders and other psychotic disorders
Expressed emotion status (high/low) Relapse Five times higher risk of relapse in those who experienced high expressed emotion Poor
  1. NOS Newcastle Ottawa Scale