|PICO||Inclusion criteria||Exclusion criteria|
• Randomised controlled trials (RCT) including:|
▪ Individual RCTs
▪ Cluster RCTs
• Step-Wedge designs with random time allocation
• Non-equivalent control group designs using parallel cohorts that adjust for baseline equivalence
• Difference-in-difference estimation
• Interrupted time-series
• Synthetic control group methods
• Studies based on:
▪ Covariate matching
▪ Propensity score based methods,
▪ Doubly robust methods
▪ Regression adjustment
▪ Regression discontinuity designs, and
▪ Instrumental variable estimation.
Qualitative studies and economic evaluations will be included if they are conducted as part of a qualifying study and will be used only to generate hypotheses, inform us about the interventions and populations and inform or deepen our understanding of the quantitative findings.
• Non-primary studies, including:|
▪ Literature reviews
▪ Systematic reviews
• Studies without a valid counterfactual, including designs that do not include a parallel cohort that establish or adjust for baseline equivalence, including:
▪ Single group pre-post designs
▪ Control group designs without matching in time and establishing baseline equivalence
▪ Cross-sectional designs
▪ Non-controlled observational (cohort) designs
▪ Case-control designs
▪ Case studies/series
Qualitative designs and economic evaluations not undertaken in the context of an included quantitative study.
Youth aged between 16 and 25|
Youth in OOHC for reasons of child maltreatment, neglect or risk of child maltreatment, relinquishment or lack of provision of support. OOHC settings include:
• Foster care
• Kinship care
• Group care
• Residential care
• Congregate care
Youth in OOHC settings for reasons other than child maltreatment, neglect, risk of child maltreatment, relinquishment or lack of provision of support.|
Youth who are not in OOHC.
Youth who are currently incarcerated, including in youth justice settings.
Youth aged less than 16 and greater than 25.
|Intervention||Policies, programs or interventions delivered in the home or community.||
Policies, programs or interventions delivered in other settings, for example: custodial settings.|
Policies, programs or interventions where the focus is not on youth transitioning from out-of-home care.
|Comparison||Treatment as usual, another intervention, no intervention, or wait-list control.||Studies using other comparators.|
• Exposure to violence (as either victim or perpetrator)
• Risky behaviour
• Life skills
|Studies looking at other outcomes.|
|Setting||Countries where a statutory care system for child maltreatment exists.||Countries where a statutory care system for child maltreatment does not exist.|