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Table 1 Eligibility criteria for the systematic review in PICO format

From: School-based interventions targeting double burden of malnutrition and educational outcomes of adolescents in low- and middle-income countries: protocol for a systematic review

Item Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Population Adolescents (10–19 years old) in primary and/or secondary school Studies involving school-age children (10–19 years old) but interventions applied exclusively outside of a school setting
Interventions, approaches or exposures of interests Studies involving one or more of the following interventions: School-based nutrition and physical education, promoting healthy diets and/or physical activity, school food and nutrition policies, Access to safe school environment, school garden, and water, sanitation and hygiene interventions Interventions targeted towards individuals with specific medical conditions such as treatments intended for underweight, overweight or obese adolescents; and educational interventions focusing only on educational outcomes (e.g., school or classroom performance, classroom environment,, and teacher performance)
Studies of school feeding and nutrient supplementation interventions
Comparison Studies that compared the intervention with any relevant control group including comparisons with no intervention, regular nutrition education classes and/or physical education classes, or any other intervention in the school setting Not applicable
Outcomes Primary outcomes: BMI z score and school attendance
Secondary outcomes: a change in anthropometry (e.g., height and weight status, BMI, height-for-age z scores, weight-for-age z scores, weight-for-height z scores, skin-fold thickness measures, stunting, underweight, wasting, body mass index, overweight, obesity, waist-to-height ratio, and central obesity), knowledge of diet and nutrition, dietary intake (i.e. amount and frequency), dietary diversity, diet quality, school enrolment status, school completion, and cognitive, maths, and/or language skills
Not applicable
Study design Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials including controlled before-after studies Non-randomized trials including controlled before-after studies that did not account for baseline differences, observational studies including cohort, case–control, and cross-sectional designs, and editorial commentaries, opinions, and review articles