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Table 1 Risk-of-bias (RoB) levels based on proportion of studies, their sample size, and effective sample size in ELF systematic review

From: Application of weighting methods for presenting risk-of-bias assessments in systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies

QUADAS2 tool domain RoB based on number of studies RoB based on sample size RoB based on effective sample size
Risk of bias Low Unclear High Low Unclear High Low Unclear High
Patient selection 46% 23% 31% 92% 4% 4% 92% 4% 4%
Index test 38% 46% 15% 16% 81% 3% 13% 84% 3%
Reference standard 77% 23% 0% 25% 75% 0% 22% 78% 0%
Flow and timing 62% 15% 23% 95% 2% 3% 95% 2% 3%