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Table 4 Effectiveness of hypnotic medicines over time

From: Zolpidem reduces pain intensity postoperatively: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of hypnotic medicines on post-operative pain intensity

  < 12 h 12–24 h 24–36 h > 48 h
Zolpidem WMD − 0.1
CI − 0.39 to 0.19
p value < 0.01
WMD − 0.3
CI − 0.38 to − 0.22
p value < 0.01
WMD − 1.49
CI − 1.63 to − 1.34
p value < 0.01
WMD − 1.09
CI − 1.12 to − 1.06
p value < 0.01
Melatonin WMD 1.09
CI 0.77 to 1.40
p value < 0.01
WMD 0.50
CI 0.18 to 0.82
p value < 0.01
n/a n/a
Midazolam WMD − 0.32
CI − 0.38 to − 0.27
p value < 0.01
WMD 0.20
CI − 0.14 to 0.54
p value < 0.01
WMD 1.39
CI 1.05 to 1.72
p value < 0.01
n/a
Lorazepam WMD 1.00
CI 0.88 to 1.12
p value < 0.01
n/a n/a n/a
  1. WMD weighted mean difference, CI confidence interval, n/a no measure for this time point