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Table 3 Risk of bias for each trial included

From: Zolpidem reduces pain intensity postoperatively: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of hypnotic medicines on post-operative pain intensity

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
  Random sequence generation Allocation concealment Blinding of participants Blinding of personnel/care providers Blinding of outcome assessor Incomplete outcome data Selective reporting Group similarity at baseline Co-interventions Compliance Intention-to-treat analysis Timing of outcome assessments Other Bias
Bischoff et al. [23] Unclear Unclear Unclear Unclear Unclear 0 Unclear Unclear 1 1 Unclear 1 Unclear
Blumenkopf [31] 0 Unclear 1 0 0 1 1 Unclear 1 Unclear 1 1 Unclear
Bourne et al. [32] Unclear 1 1 Unclear Unclear 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Egan et al. [27] Unclear Unclear 1 1 1 1 Unclear 1 1 1 1 1 Unclear
Gögenur et al. [33] 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Unclear 1 1 1 1 1
Gong et al. [28] 1 Unclear 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Hershberger and Milad [34] 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Unclear 1 1 1 1 Unclear
Jacobsen et al. [29] Unclear 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Unclear 1 0 1 0
Krenk et al. [24] 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1
Nott et al. [26] Unclear Unclear Unclear Unclear 1 1 0 Unclear 1 1 Unclear 1 1
Riediger et al. [35] 1 Unclear 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Sajedi et al. [30] 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Unclear 1 1 1 1 1
Singh et al. [36] Unclear Unclear Unclear Unclear 1 1 Unclear Unclear 1 1 1 1 Unclear
Tashjian et al. [25] 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Unclear 1 1 Unclear
Tompkins et al. [13] Unclear 1 1 1 1 1 1 Unclear 1 Unclear 1 1 0