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Table 1 PICO-S

From: Risk factors for gambling and problem gambling: a protocol for a rapid umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses

PICO-S component

Inclusion/exclusion criteria


All populations. To include adults and children, general population or sub-groups of the population (e.g. by sex, age, ethnicity, geographical location, deprivation, institution) or a clinical population (e.g. those with Parkinson’s disease, post-traumatic stress disorder).


Risk factors associated with gambling and problem gambling. All risk factors will be included, and it is expected that they will comprise individual and clinical attributes (such as gender, impulsivity, the presence of Parkinson’s disease), as well as social and environmental factors (such as family influences, the availability of gambling). Reviews of studies examining protective factors will be excluded.


Any or no comparisons.


Gambling—to include all forms of gambling, including gambling-related aspects of gaming (see definitions), different levels of gambling intensity and gambling initiation, urges or escalation.

Study type

Systematic reviews of both quantitative and qualitative studies with narrative synthesis and/or meta-analysis. Other review types (such as mapping, scoping and narrative reviews) will be excluded. Reviews of studies examining the effectiveness of interventions will also be excluded.