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Table 1 List of studies included in this review

From: Understanding the mental health of doctoral researchers: a mixed methods systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-synthesis

  Sample size   Scale
Article Article type Method Total PhD n Male n Female n Other n Age M(SD) Universities Countries Lead country
Acker et al. (2015) [36] P Qualitative 27 5 22 0 -(−) Single Single Canada
Appel et al. (2003) [37] P Mixed 159 77 82 0 -(−) Single Single Sweden
Bauer (2016) [48] D Quantitative 118 28 90 0 -(−) Multiple Single USA
Bazrafkan et al. (2016) [41] P Qualitative 32(9) Multiple Single Iran
Begun et al. (2017) [49] P Mixed 281 219 60 2 38(9) Multiple Single USA
Benjamin et al. (2017) [50] P Qualitative 29 11 18 0 -(−) Multiple Single USA
Benesek (1998) [51] D Quantitative 66 11 55 0 -(−) Multiple Single USA
Bireda (2015) [52] P Qualitative 5 0 5 0 -(−) Single Single Ethiopia
Bolliger et al. (2012) [53] P Quantitative 84 - - - 42(−) Single Single USA
Cole (2008) [54] D Quantitative 261 98 161 0 -(−) Multiple Multiple -
Cotterall (2013) [42] P Qualitative 6 3 3 0 -(−) Single Single Australia
Devine et al. (2017) [55] P Mixed* 183 33 150 0 33(6) Multiple Multiple Canada
Devonport et al. (2014) [38] P Qualitative 2 2 0 0 27(−) Single Single UK
Drake (2010) [56] D Quantitative 220 40 180 0 28(5) Multiple Single USA
Dumitrescu (2016) [57] D Quantitative 153 37 115 1 34(8) Multiple Single USA
El-Ghoroury et al. (2012) [58] P Quantitative 209 -(−) Multiple Single USA
Enzor (2017) [39] D Qualitative 10 2 8 0 -(−) Multiple Single -
Haynes et al. (2012) [59] P Qualitative 8 0 8 0 -(−) Single Single USA
Hill (2010) [60] D Quantitative 64 29 35 0 -(−) Single Single USA
Holahan (1979) [61] P Quantitative 377 0 377 0 -(−) Single Single USA
Hunter et al. (2016) [62] P Mixed* 186 150 36 0 33(7) Multiple Multiple Canada
Kaufman (2004) [43] D Mixed 41 7 33 0 41(−) Single Single USA
Kaufman (2006) [63] P Quantitative 41 7 34 0 41(−) Single Single USA
Kenty (2000) [44] P Mixed 111 0 111 0 45(43) Multiple Single USA
Kurtz-Costes et al. (2006) [40] P Qualitative 20 8 12 0 -(−) Single Single USA
Levecque et al. (2017) [64] P Quantitative 3659 28(5) Multiple Single Finland
Lonka et al. (2014) [65] P Quantitative 669 168 496 0 39(-) Single Single Finland
Lowe (2015) [66] D Quantitative 338 60 276 2 -(-) Multiple Single USA
Marais et al. (2018) [67] P Quantitative 136 36 100 0 -(−) Single Single France
Martinez et al. (2013) [68] P Qualitative 5 -(−) Single Single USA
McGregor et al. (2008) [69] P Quantitative 10 3 7 0 -(−) Single Single USA
Nelson (2014) [70] D Quantitative 156 47 109 0 -(−) Multiple Single USA
Nottingham (2017) [71] D Quantitative 116 40 76 0 -(−) Multiple Single USA
Orozco (2014) [72] D Quantitative 161 23 138 0 -(−) Single Single USA
Peters (2007) [73] D Quantitative 104 24 79 0 -(−) Single Single USA
Pifer et al. (2014) [74] P Qualitative 31 17 14 0 33(−) Single Single USA
Platt et al. (1995) [75] P Quantitative 53 -(−) Single Single USA
Pychyl (1995) [76] D Mixed* 19 8 11 0 -(−) Single Single Canada
Pychyl et al. (1998) [77] P Mixed 81 36 45 0 35(−) Single Single Canada
Rocha-Singh (1994) [78] P Quantitative 469 178 291 0 -(−) Single Single USA
Scheidler (2008) [79] D Quantitative 507 141 363 3 42(−) Multiple Single USA
Scrubb (1997) [45] D Mixed 156 80 76 0 -(−) Single Single USA
Sekas et al. (1980) [80] P Quantitative 42 -(−) Single Single USA
Stubb et al. (2011) [81] P Mixed 669 168 496 0 39(−) Single Single Finland
Stubb et al. (2012) [82] P Mixed 669 -(−) Single Single Finland
Ülkü-Steiner et al. (2000) [83] P Quantitative 714 293 421 0 -(−) Single Single USA
Usman Yousaf et al. (2016) [46] P Qualitative 8 -(−) Single Single Malaysia
Volkert et al. (2018) [84] P Quantitative 835 -(−) Multiple Single USA
Waaijer et al. (2016) [85] P Quantitative 218 111 107 0 -(−) Single Single Netherlands
Wang et al. (2010) [86] P Qualitative 1 1 0 0 30(N/A) Single Single Taiwan
Williams (2014) [87] D Quantitative 140 37 101 2 29(6) Multiple Single USA
Wright (2006) [88] P Quantitative 15 7 8 0 -(−) Single Single UK
  1. M and SD rounded to whole figures; D dissertation, P peer reviewed paper, N/A not applicable, – = not reported, USA United Stated of America, UK United Kingdom; *Study used mixed methods, but only qualitative data were used in this review as quantitative data did not pertain to mental health