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Table 2 Summary of characteristics of included studies

From: Systematic review of patient-oriented interventions to reduce unnecessary use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections

StudyMethodsParticipantsInterventionsPrimary outcome
Delayed prescription
 Arroll et al. [34]RCT, 2 arms. Settings: New Zealand, one family practice (15 physicians)Patients presenting with the common cold. Number of participants: 129Delayed antibiotic prescriptionAntibiotic use
 Little et al. [35]RCT, 3 arms. Settings: UK, general practicesPatients with sore throat. Number of participants: 716Delayed prescription of antibiotics, no antibioticsAntibiotic use
 Little et al. [36]RCT, 2 arms. Settings: UK, general practicesChildren with acute otalgia. Number of participants: 315Delayed prescription of antibioticsUse and collection of antibiotic prescriptions
 Little et al. [37]RCT, 5 arms. Settings: UK, primary care settingPatients with a respiratory tract infection. Number of participants: 556Delayed patient-led, post-dated prescription, delayed-collection, delayed-re-contact, no prescriptionSymptom severity
 Pshetizky et al. [38]RCT, 2 arms. Settings: Israel, primary care settingParents of children with acute otitis media. Number of participants: 81Delayed prescription of antibioticsAntibiotic use
 Poza Abad et al. [39]RCT, 4 arms. Settings: Spain, primary care settingPatients with uncomplicated respiratory infections. Number of participants: 398Delayed patient-led, delayed collection, no antibioticDuration and severity of symptoms
 Worrall et al. [40]RCT, 2 arms. Settings: Canada, primary care settingAdult patients with acute URTIs. Number of participants: 149Post-dated delayed antibiotic prescriptionFilling the prescription by the patients
Patient/public information and education
 Alexandrino et al. [41]RCT, 2 arms. Settings: Portugal, 10 private daycare centresCaregivers. Number of participants: 177Health education session (HES)Impact of HES on the indicators of individual health and health care utilization
 Francis et al. [42]Cluster RCT, 61 clusters, 2 arms. Settings: UK, general practicesChildren with a respiratory tract infection. Number of participants: 558Interactive bookletThe proportion of children who attended a face-to-face consultation about the same illness during the 2-week follow-up period
 Lambert et al. [43]ITS.
Settings: UK, a single geographical population in the North East of England
People of the communityMass media educationPrescribing rates for all microbial agents
 Lee et al. [44]RCT, 2 arms. Settings: Singapore, primary care settingPatients presenting RTI symptoms. Number of participants: 914Education through pamphlets and counselling scriptsAntibiotic prescription
 Little et al. [45]RCT, 2 arms. Settings: UK, primary care settingAdult patients. Number of participants: 2923Interactive websiteGeneral practitioner consultation
 Taylor et al. [46]RCT, 2 arms. Settings: USA, primary care settingHealthy children. Number of participants: 499Parental education through pamphlets and videosNumber of diagnoses of otitis media and sinusitis per study child, number of visits per child for which antibiotics (oral or intramuscular) were prescribed