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Table 4 Second trimester TAS for VCI screening studies. Summary characteristics

From: Velamentous cord insertion: results from a rapid review of incidence, risk factors, adverse outcomes and screening

 Di Salvo 1998 [63]Hasegawa 2006 [69]Nomiyama 1998 [66]Pretorius 1996 [16]Sepulveda 2006 [67]Sepulveda 2003 [68]
Participant SelectionUnclear [RoB: unclear]Retrospective enrollment of pregnancies [RoB: high]Prospectively enrolled consecutive samples of pregnancies [RoB: low]Prospectively enrolled consecutive samples of pregnancies [RoB: low]Prospectively enrolled consecutive samples of pregnancies [RoB: low]Excluded pregnancies with inadequate amniotic fluid volume [RoB: high]
Index Test/TechniqueGrey-scale TAS, with colour. Doppler imaging at the discretion of the sonologist [RoB: high]Grey-scale TAS, with colour. Doppler imaging at the discretion of the sonologist [RoB: high]Colour Doppler TAS. If inconclusive, 3rd trimester repeat testing, using Doppler TVS if needed. The same screening methods used for all patients [RoB: low]TAS. Use of colour Doppler unclear [RoB: high]Grey-scale TAS. Colour Doppler imaging at the discretion of the sonologist; supplemented with use of TVS if TAS was inconclusive [RoB: high]Colour Doppler TAS, with colour Doppler TVS used if insufficient image quality was obtained from TAS [RoB: high]
Reference StandardVCI confirmed by postnatal examination [RoB: high]VCI confirmed by postnatal examination for all participants [RoB: unclear]VCI confirmed by postnatal examination for all participants
Placental cord insertion was obtained from medical records [RoB: high]
VCI confirmed by postnatal examination, performed by a pathologist blinded to the screening result [RoB: low]VCI confirmed by postnatal examination for all participants [RoB: unclear]VCI confirmed by postnatal examination for all participants [RoB: unclear]
Participant FlowPostnatal exam for participants with perinatal complications or in multiple gestation pregnancies
Long interval between the index test and the reference standard [RoB: high]
Long interval between the index test and the reference standard [RoB: high]Long interval between the index test and the reference standard [RoB: high]Many specimens were not sent for pathologic study by the obstetricians
Long interval between the index test and the reference standard [RoB: high]
Long interval between the index test and the reference standard [RoB: high]Long interval between the index test and the reference standard [RoB: high]
Ultrasound Timing (GA, weeks)13 to 3918 to 2018 to 20≥1511 to 1416 to 40
  1. GA gestational age, RoB risk of bias, TAS transabdominal sonography, TVS transvaginal sonography, VCI velamentous cord insertion