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Table 1 Proposed dashboard distribution strategy of air ambulance outcome measure examples in a combined IOM and Donabedian domains

From: Air ambulance outcome measures using Institutes of Medicine and Donabedian quality frameworks: protocol for a systematic scoping review

IOM domain of qualityDonabedian measure typeDonabedian measure typeDonabedian measure type
 Structural examplesProcess examplesOutcome examples
Effectiveness examples:Appropriate HR(qualifications, quantity), facilities (proximity population, tertiary), equipment (ECMO), or funding structures which incorporate EBMAppropriate guidelines or policy driven by EBMImproved patient survival
Efficiency examplesAppropriate HR, facilities, equipment, or funding which minimize waste of equipment, ideas, or energyGuidelines and policy which appropriate tasking to avoid over/under triageDecrease in patient mortality and morbidity
Safety examples:HR, equipment, facilities, funding structures which meet aviation and clinical safety regulationAviation and health procedures and guidelines which facilitate swift and safe departuresPatient survival; avoiding adverse events
Patient-centeredness examplesHR quantity and qualifications to meet patient and population-specific needsCurrent standards of care to meet patient-specific needsSurvival; respecting patient values and preferences
Timeliness examplesEquipment, facilities, funding structure, HR quantity, and qualifications for timely assessment and treatment implementationActive governance which monitor total system response timeImproved patient survival due to timely care
Equity examplesEquipment, facilities, HR, and funding structure to meet time/distance/patient variationAppropriate policy, standards and/or procedures to meet needs of remote and disadvantaged communitiesPatient survival across gender, ethnicity, geographic location, or socioeconomic status variations
  1. HR human resources, EBM evidence-based medicine [43]