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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Association between subthreshold depression and self-care behaviors in people with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of observational studies

CitationCountry of the studyAim of the studyStudy population characteristicsStudy designStudy settingSample size/sample size calculationSampling techniqueData sourceDefinition of subthreshold depressionMeasures usedAnalysisConfounder variables adjustedKey observation
Dirmaier et al. [43]GermanyTo investigate the effect of depression on adherence to medical recommendation (concerning medication adherence and health behavior) and to investigate the effect of depression and adherence to medical recommendation (medication adherence and health behavior) on HbA1cType 2 diabetes patients aged 18 years or older; mean age, 65.7 years; female, 48.8%Longitudinal studyHospital based in primary care866/not specifiedRandom samplingDETECT study of 55,518 patientsDSQ score between 5 and 7 indicated subthreshold depression-Depression Screening Questionnaire (DSQ)
-Medication non-adherence: one question
-Non-adherence with health behavior: five item questionnaires
Logistic and linear regressionGender, age, marital status, employment status, education, physical activity, BMI, smoking, drinking, duration of diabetes, and type of diabetes treatmentSubthreshold depression was associated with problems with health behavior whereas it was not associated with medication adherence.
Shin et al. [44]USATo examine whether problem-solving and diabetes self-care behaviors differed by depressive disorder diagnosisType 2 diabetes patients aged 18 years or older; mean age, 58 years; female, 59%Cross-sectional studyHospital based103/not specifiedAll patients with type 2 diabetes seen in the clinic between 1st Feb 2011 and 30th June 2013.Primary (data from patients attending Diabetes Center Clinics at John Hopkins)DSM-IV criteria for minor depression-PHQ-2 followed by SCID-I/NP
-Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA)
ANOVA and multiple linear regressionAge, sex, and diabetes durationMinor depression was not associated with neither the total score nor the subscale score (diet, exercise, blood sugar, foot care, medication) of self-care activities.
  1. SCID-I/NP Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, non-patient edition