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Table 2 Design features for determining study eligibility and description (adapted from [31])

From: Long-term effects of alcohol consumption on cognitive function: a systematic review and dose-response analysis of evidence published between 2007 and 2018

Study design featureProspective cohortRetrospective cohortNested case-control
(1) A comparison between two or more groups of participants with different levels or patterns of alcohol consumption (‘yes’ = cohort or NCC)YesYesYes
(2a) Participants were allocated to groups based on different levels or patterns of alcohol exposureYesYesNo (based on outcome)
(2b) Participants were allocated to groups on the basis of outcomesNoNoYes
(3) The following parts of the study were prospective:   
a. Identification of participantsYesNoYes
b. Assessment of alcohol consumption and allocation to alcohol consumption categories prior to follow-up measures of cognitionYesNoYes (from existing records)
c. Assessment of outcomes (baseline cognition)YesPossiblyYes
d. Generation of hypothesesYesYesYes
Assessment of comparability of groups was based on:   
• Potential confoundersPossiblyPossiblyPossibly
• Outcome variables at baselinePossiblyPossiblyNo