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Table 1 Levels of automation for human-computer interactions

From: A question of trust: can we build an evidence base to gain trust in systematic review automation technologies?

Level Task
Level 4 Tools perform tasks to eliminate the need for human participation in the task altogether, e.g., fully automated article screening decision about relevance made by the automated system.
Level 3 Tools perform a task automatically but unreliably and require human supervision or else provide the option to manually override the tools’ decisions, e.g., duplicate detection algorithms and software, linked publication detection with plagiarism algorithms and software.
Level 2 Tools enable workflow prioritization, e.g., prioritization of relevant abstracts; however, this does not reduce the work time for reviewers on the task but does allow for compression of the calendar time of the entire process.
Level 1 Tools improve the file management process, e.g., citation databases, reference management software, and systematic review management software.