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Table 1 Summary of the characteristic of the all-inclusive studies

From: Effectiveness of whey protein supplements on the serum levels of amino acid, creatinine kinase and myoglobin of athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author name and year Country Study design Participants Protocol Outcomes assessed
    Categories of athletes Male Female Total Number of times to obtain supplement in a day Intervention duration (day) Exercise activity during intervention duration Consume the supplementation during intervention duration  
[24] Australia Random within-subject, counterbalanced Young, healthy, resistance-trained 8 7 15 1 time(s) 60 days, include wash out period Leg press Consume the supplementation during exercise Essential amino acid, branched-chain amino acids
[25] Spain Random counterbalanced double blinding Cyclists 15 0 15 1 time(s) 16 days Cycling Consume the supplementation during exercise Creatine kinase
[26] Denmark Random Soccer players 16 0 16 1 time(s) 2 days Soccer game Consume the supplementation after exercise Myoglobin, creatine kinase
[27] Denmark Random block single blinding Elite orienteers 8 10 18 1 time(s) 7 days Running Consume the supplementation before and after exercise Creatine kinase
[28] Denmark Random block single blinding Elite orienteers 18 0 18 4 time(s) 7 days Cycling, mix of distance training, interval training, mountain climbing Consume the supplementation after exercise Creatine kinase
[29] The UK Random counterbalanced Cyclists and tri-athletes 9 0 9 1 time(s) 7 days Cycling Consume the supplementation before exercise Essential amino acid, branched-chain amino acids
[30] The USA Non-random counterbalanced within-group double blinding Resistance training experience 13 0 13 2 time(s) 56 days, include wash out period Cycle, dynamic stretches, jump test Consume the supplementation before and during exercise Creatine kinase
[31] Indonesia Random double blinding Badminton player 18 0 18 1 time(s) 4 days Resistance exercise was conducted using squat Consume the supplementation after exercise Creatine kinase
[32] Brazil Random double blinding Soccer players 24 0 24 1 time(s) 56 days Cycle, soccer Consume the supplementation after exercise Creatine kinase
[33] Brazil Random Soccer players 24 0 24 2 time(s) 180 days Soccer training Consume the supplementation before exercise and after exercise Creatine kinase
[34] Japan Non-random crossover double blinding Trained men 8 0 8 4 time(s) 9 days, include wash out period Cycle Consume the supplementation after exercise Branched-chain amino acids
[35] The UK Random counterbalanced, crossover double blinding Amateur soccer players 16 0 16 4 time(s) 13 days, include wash out period Run, jogging, running Consume the supplementation before, during and after exercise Myoglobin, creatine kinase
[36] Australia Random counterbalanced, crossover Physically active 8 0 8 2 time(s) 16 days, include wash out period Plate-loaded leg extension Consume the supplementation after exercise Essential amino acid, branched-chain amino acids
[37] Canada Random crossover, counterbalanced double blinding Resistance-trained 8 0 8 1 time(s) 16 days Resistance exercise, weight lifted Consume the supplementation before exercise Essential amino acid, branched-chain amino acids
[38] China Randomised control trial Track and field athletes 14 6 20 3 time(s) 1 days Track and field Consume the supplementation before and after exercise Creatine kinase