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Table 3 Effect estimates and heterogeneity for change from baseline to post-intervention scores and immediately post-intervention values, for all outcomes analysed in the exercise versus control comparison

From: Exercise, or exercise and diet for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Outcome References Change from baseline Immediately post-intervention values
N MD Lower 95% CI Upper 95% CI I2 (%) N MD Lower 95% CI Upper 95% CI I2 (%)
SBP (mmHg) [101, 108, 117, 118] 158 − 2.93 − 7.06 1.20 50 158 2.02 − 6.82 10.86 87
DBP (mmHg) [101, 108, 117, 118] 158 − 2.19 − 5.23 0.85 46 158 − 0.82 − 3.49 1.84 31
FBG (mg/dL) [32, 100, 101, 107, 109, 110, 117,118,118,119] 263 − 1.08 − 2.47 0.30 16 238 − 1.69 − 4.35 0.97 37
FI (μIU/mL) [32, 100, 101, 107, 109, 110, 117,118,119] 263 − 2.44** − 4.24 − 0.64 91 238 − 2.11** − 3.49 − 0.73 40
HOMA-IR [32, 100, 101, 107, 109, 110, 117, 119] 173 − 0.57** − 0.99 − 0.14 87 148 − 0.22 − 0.80 0.36 69
TC (mg/dL) [32, 101, 108,109,110, 117, 118] 225 − 5.88** − 9.92 − 1.83 35 225 − 6.35** − 10.76 − 1.95 0
LDL-C (mg/dL) [32, 101, 108,109,110, 117, 118] 225 − 7.39*** − 9.83 − 4.95 0 225 − 6.68** − 11.66 − 1.70 0
HDL-C (mg/dL) [32, 101, 108,109,110, 117, 118] 225 0.29 − 1.46 2.04 52 225 1.87 − 1.59 5.33 65
TG (mg/dL) [32, 101, 108,109,110, 117, 118] 225 − 4.78*** − 7.52 − 2.05 3 225 − 1.97 − 7.36 3.42 18
VO2 max (ml/kg/min) [32, 100, 103, 107, 109, 118] 229 3.84*** 2.87 4.81 17 184 5.01*** 3.48 6.54 42
RHR (bpm) [32, 101, 117, 118] 156 − 2.65 − 5.55 0.25 51 156 − 3.26*** − 4.93 − 1.59 0
BMI (kg/m2) [32, 34, 100, 101, 103, 107, 109, 110, 117, 118, 119] 331 − 0.49 − 1.04 0.06 66 272 − 1.02** − 1.81 − 0.23 0
Body Mass (kg) [32, 34, 101, 103, 109, 110, 119] 139 − 1.25 − 3.27 0.76 33 128 − 0.48 − 4.86 3.91 0
WC (cm) [32, 34, 108, 109, 117,118,119] 221 − 2.62*** − 4.13 − 1.11 53 221 − 2.33 − 5.23 0.58 15
WHR [101, 118] 101 − 0.03 − 0.08 0.02 0 101 − 0.04 − 0.08 0.01 19
Body Fat (%) [32, 109, 119] 60 − 1.39* − 2.61 − 0.18 30 60 − 3.28 − 7.39 0.83 22
Fat Mass (kg) [32, 101, 119] 63 − 1.70 − 3.93 0.53 70 38 5.14 − 14.39 24.68 65
FFM (kg) [32, 101, 119] 63 0.46 − 0.89 1.81 58 38 4.99 − 7.31 17.28 75
Testosterone (nmol/L) [32, 101, 117,118,119] 203 − 0.09 − 0.24 0.06 0 169 − 0.08 − 0.35 0.19 37
SHBG (nmol/L) [32, 101, 118, 119] 173 7.51 − 8.01 23.04 89 139 4.03 − 18.57 26.63 66
Free T (pg/mL) [101, 117] 74 − 0.43 − 1.74 0.88 76 41 0.33 − 0.10 0.77 0
FAI [32, 101, 118, 119] 139 0.24 − 0.55 1.04 0 139 0.68 − 1.09 2.44 46
FG [101, 118] 135 − 0.63 − 2.08 0.81 0 101 − 0.75 − 2.03 0.54 0
Oestradiol (pmol/L) [100, 101, 117, 118] 190 − 13.94 − 54.53 26.64 65 120 0.27 − 11.27 11.80 0
DHEA-S (μmol/L) [32, 101] 70 − 0.60 − 1.58 0.39 0 36 − 0.20 − 1.87 1.46 0
LH (IU/L) [101, 104, 117, 118] 185 − 0.30 − 2.54 1.95 72 151 − 0.66 − 2.39 1.06 43
FSH (IU/L) [101, 104, 117, 118] 185 0.23 − 0.08 0.53 0 151 − 0.01 − 0.40 0.37 0
LH/FSH ratio [101, 117] 41 − 0.02 − 0.38 0.33 0 41 0.32 − 0.22 0.86 37
PG (nmol/L) [102, 118] 115 − 0.72 − 2.53 1.09 74
Prolactin (ng/mL) [104, 118] 110 − 0.05 − 0.71 0.61 0 110 0.20 − 0.27 0.68 0
hsCRP (mg/L) [32, 119] 38 − 0.41 − 1.19 0.37 0 38 0.67 − 1.31 2.65 0
AMH (ng/mL) [32, 109, 110] 67 − 0.67 − 1.65 0.32 0 67 0.48 − 1.89 2.84 0
Adiponectin (μg/mL) [32, 101] 70 − 0.20 − 1.04 0.64 0
  1. Effect estimates are reported as mean differences (MD) and 95% confidence intervals, between exercise and usual care groups. Heterogeneity reported using I2 statistic
  2. Key: 95% CI 95% confidence intervals, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, FBG fasting blood glucose, FI fasting insulin, HOMA-IR homeostatic model of assessment - insulin resistance, TC total cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglycerides, RHR resting heart rate, BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, WHR waist-to-hip ratio, FFM fat-free mass, SHBG sex hormone binding globulin, Free T free testosterone, FAI free androgen index, FG Ferriman-Gallwey score, DHEA-S dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, LH luteinising hormone, FSH follicle stimulating hormone, PG progesterone, hsCRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, AMH anti-Müllerian hormone. N number or participants included within analysis
  3. Positive values favour exercise over control.
  4. Study only included in the change from baseline analysis
  5. Statistically significant effects denoted by *P ≤ 0.05; **P ≤ 0.01; ***P ≤ 0.001