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Table 2 Implementation strategies

From: Implementation of self-management support in cancer care and normalization into routine practice: a systematic scoping literature review protocol

Strategy Description
Audit and feedback A summary of health workers’ performance over a specified period of time, given to them in written, electronic, or verbal format. May include recommendations for clinical action.
Local opinion leaders/champions The identification and use of identifiable local opinion leader to promote or champion good clinical practice.
Patient-mediated interventions The use of patients to change professional practice; could include the provision of patient-reported outcomes to practitioners.
Public release of performance data Informing the public about healthcare providers by the release of performance data in written or electronic form.
Reminders Manualized or computerized interventions that prompt health care workers to perform and action during a consultation with a patient, i.e., computer decision support systems.
Educational games The use of games as an education strategy to improve standards of care.
Educational materials Distribution of individuals, groups, or educational materials to support clinical care, i.e., any intervention in which knowledge is distributed.
Education meetings Courses, workshops, conferences of other educational meetings.
Educational outreach visits or academic detailing Personal visits by a trained person to health care workers in their own settings, to provide information with the aim of changing practice.
Routine patient-reported outcome measures Routine administration and reporting of patient-reported outcome measures to providers and/or patients.
Managerial supervision Routine supervision visits by health staff.
Decision support tools such as guidelines Evidence-based guidance on appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances, e.g., symptom triage protocols.
Local consensus processes Formal or informal local consensus processes, for example agreeing to a clinical protocol to manage a patient group, or for adapting a guideline.
Continuous quality improvement An iterative process to review and improve care that includes involvement of healthcare teams, analysis of a process or system, a structured process improvement method or problem-solving approach and use of data to analyze changes, i.e., Plan, Do, Study, Act Cycles
Inter-professional education Continuing education for healthcare professionals that involves more than one profession in joint, interactive learning.
Tailored interventions Interventions to change practice that are selected based on an assessment of systematic assessment of barriers to change.