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Table 4 Findings into difference in gut microbiome composition between CFS/ME and health controls

From: A systematic review of enteric dysbiosis in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis

Reference Increased microbial genera in CFS/ME vs HC Decreased microbial genera in CFS/ME vs HC
Armstrong et al. Clostridium spp. (relative count, p = 0.020) Total bacteria (absolute count, p = 0.005), total anaerobic bacteria (absolute count, p = 0.021), Bacteroides spp. (absolute count, p = 0.009; B. vulgatus and B. uniformis not significant)
Frémont et al.
*p < 0.05
**p < 0.01
NC vs. BC: Roseburia (× 1.7*), Holdmenia (× 3**)—Norwegians higher Firmicutes NC vs. BC: Bacteroides (× 0.36*), Alistipes (× 0.2**), Barnesiella (× 0.2**), Parabacteroides (× 0.26**), Prevotella (× 0.025**)
NP vs. NC: Lactinofactor (× 20**), Alistipes (× 3.8*) NP vs. NC: Roseburia (× 0.54*), Syntrophococcus (× 0.4*), Holdmenia (× 0.02**), Dialister (× 0.6*)
BP vs. BC: Lactinofactor (× 45**) BP vs. BC: Asaccharobacter (× 0.25*)
Giloteaux et al. Increased pro-inflammatory species, Proteobacteria (8%) family Enterobacteriaceae (6 vs. 3%)
Note: reported ‘overall microbial composition for ME/CFS and controls differed at the phylum and family levels, although none of these were statistically significant after multiple test correction
Reduced phylogenetic diversity (p = 0.004) and relative abundance of Firmicutes (35%); reduced diversity overall; decreased anti-inflammatory species
Mandarano et al. Note: investigated Eukaryotes in gut microbiome
Composition of Eukaryotic microorganisms was unique between individuals; differences in abundances of specific eukaryotes between CFS/ME and HC did not reach statistical significance at any level of taxonomy
Gut eukaryote diversity was not different between CFS and HC
Rao et al. Treatment vs. Placebo–treatment was 24 billion CFU Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota
Moderate increases in total aerobes + anaerobes, significant increases in Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus (significance not reported) between treatment and placebo groups from 0 to 8 weeks
Note: these results were expected because the probiotics administered contained high levels of these bacteria
Sheedy et al. Increased total aerobes (p < 0.001), increased E. faecalis (p < 0.001), increased S. sanguinis (p < 0.001) Lower gram positive to gram negative ratio (p < 0.01), decreased total E. coli (p = 0.98)
Shukla et al. None Mean relative abundance of Actinobacteria decreased (p < 0.05), no other significant changes
  1. CFS/ME chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis, HC healthy control, NC Norwegian control, BC Belgian control, NP Norwegian patient, BP Belgian patient