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Table 2 Summary of study characteristics of included studies

From: A systematic review of enteric dysbiosis in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis

Author Year Study design Sample type Dx Country Samples size Method of analysing microbiome Quality score
CFS/ME Control
Armstrong et al. 2016 Observational case-control CFS/ME Canadian Criteria (2003) Australia 34 F 25 F Bacterial culture and MALDI-TOF MS 73% (good)
Frémont et al. 2013 Observational case-control CFS/ME Fukuda (1994) Belgium Belgian: 15 F, 3 M; Norwegian: 22 F, 3 M Belgian: 15 F, 4 M; Norwegian: 14F, 3 M PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes 67% (fair)
Giloteauc et al. 2016 Observational case-control CFS/ME Fukuda (1994) USA 38 F, 11 M 30 F, 9 M 16S rRNA genes sequenced from faecal samples 47% (poor)
Mandarano et al. 2018 Observational case-control CFS/ME Fukuda (1994) USA Taxa abundance comparisons: 13 F, 4 M; diversity subgroup: 7 F, 4 M Taxa abundance comparisons: 16 F, 1 M; diversity subgroup: 9 F, 1 M DNA extraction, 18S amplification, sequencing using QIIME 47% (poor)
Rao et al. 2009 RCT, pilot study CFS/ME Canadian Criteria (2003) Canada CFS/ME 27 F, 8 M: 16 placebo, 19 treatment (Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota) Culture technique 56% (fair)
Sheedy et al. 2009 Observational case-control CFS/ME Holmes (1988) Fukuda (1994) Canadian Criteria (2003) Australia 108 177 Culture technique 80% (good)
Shukla et al. 2015 Observational case-control CFS/ME Fukuda (1994) Italy 8 F, 2 M 8 F, 2 M 16S rRNA amplification and pyrosequencing 80% (good)
  1. Dx diagnostic criteria, CFS/ME chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis, F female, M male, MALDI-TOF MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of flight mass spectrometry, PCR polymerase chain reaction, RNA ribonucleic acid, USA United States of America, DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, QIIME Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology bioinformatics program