Skip to main content

Table 5 Bias domains to be assessed using the QUIPS tool

From: The HEART score in predicting major adverse cardiac events in patients presenting to the emergency department with possible acute coronary syndrome: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

Domain Optimal study
Study participation Study sample adequately represents the population of interest
That is, relationship between HEART score and MACE unlikely to be different for participants and eligible non-participants
Study attrition Study data available (i.e. participants not lost to follow-up) adequately represent study sample
That is, relationship between HEART score and MACE unlikely to be different for completing and non-completing participants
Prognostic factor measurement Prognostic factors measured in a similar way for all participants
That is, measurement of HEART score unlikely to be different if MACE is present versus absent
Outcome measurement Outcomes of interest measured in a similar way for all participants
That is, measurement of MACE unlikely to be different with varying HEART scores
Statistical analysis and reporting Statistical analysis appropriate, and all primary outcomes reported
That is, reported results unlikely to be spurious or biased due to analysis or reporting