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Table 3 Levels of evidence

From: Evidence-based guidelines for physiotherapy management of patients with multiple myeloma: study protocol

Level Criteria
I Evidence obtained from high-quality diagnostic studies, prognostic or prospective studies, cohort studies or randomized controlled trials, meta analyses or systematic reviews (critical appraisal score > 50% of criteria).
II Evidence obtained from lesser-quality diagnostic studies, prognostic or prospective studies, cohort studies or randomized controlled trials, meta
analyses or systematic reviews (eg, weaker diagnostic criteria and reference standards, improper randomization, no blinding, <80% follow-up) (critical appraisal score <50% of criteria).
III Case-controlled studies or retrospective studies
IV Case studies and case series
V Expert opinion
  1. Reprinted from Kaplan SL, Coulter C, Fetters L. Developing evidence-based physical therapy clinical practice guidelines. Pediatr Phys Ther. 2013;25:257–270, with permission of Wolters Kluwer Health Inc.