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Table 1 Definitions of the care elements in the ‘5As’ approach to preventive care provision [20, 51]

From: Systematic review of interventions to increase the provision of care for chronic disease risk behaviours in mental health settings: review protocol

Care element Definition
Ask Asking clients about their current behaviour levels
Assess Assessing readiness to change risk behaviours, and/or dependence (for tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption)
Advise Advice to change behaviours or education around what constitutes risk, the individual’s level of risk, and/or guidelines for behaviours
Assist Discussion of the benefits and barriers to change, providing counselling to change behaviours (such as motivational interviewing), and/or providing additional supports including pharmacotherapy, educational materials or self-help materials
Arrange Referring the client to any health care provider or support service to support behaviour change (such as a telephone coaching service, dietician or support group).