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Table 6 Selection of semantic rules used for extraction in GATE format, each with example phrases they match

From: Automated screening of research studies for systematic reviews using study characteristics

Characteristic  
Study design Example We conducted a hospital-based prospective cohort study
Rule   (verb) ({Token.string==~“(?i)a”}|{Token.string==~“(?i)an”}) ({Token})[0,1] (study) (types)?
Population Example Cohort of 665 Danish pregnant women
Rule ({Token.string==~“(?i)cohort”}|{Token.string==~“(?i)sample”}|{Token.string==~“(?i)total”}|{Token.string==~“(?i)samples”}|{Token.string==~“(?i)cross-sectional”}|{Token.string==~“(?i)subsample”}) {Token.string==~“(?i)of”} (population)
Exposure Example Perfluorinated compounds in relation to birth weight
Rule (folic_variations) {Lookup.majorType==“relations”} (birthoutcomes)
Outcome Example association with   miscarriage
Rule {Lookup.majorType==“relations”} ({Token.string==~“(?i)between”}|(with)) ({Token.string==~“(?i)the”})? (birthoutcomes)
Confounding factor Example Adjusting for   covariates, including maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, education, and birth weight
Rule (adjustment) ({Token.string = ~“(?i)for”}|{Token.string = ~“(?i)by”}) ({Token})[0,3] (cnf)
Country Example In Alberta , Canada
Rule {Token.string==~“(?i)in”} ({Token}) [1] {Token.string==“,”} ({Lookup.majorType==“countries”}|{Lookup.majorType==“states”})