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Table 4 Limitations in individual studies with respect to statistical analysis

From: A systematic review of neonatal treatment intensity scores and their potential application in low-resource setting hospitals for predicting mortality, morbidity and estimating resource use

Study Study type Performance Validation Presentation§
Georgieff,1989 [40] Evaluation of existing score* ? ? ?
Gray, 1992 [19] Development of new score + ? ?
Davies, 1995 [33] Evaluation of existing score* ? ? ?
Eriksson, 2002 [34] Evaluation of existing score* + ? ?
Zupancic, 2002 [35] Evaluation of existing score* ? ? ?
Mendes, 2006 [36] Evaluation of existing score* ? ? ?
Rojas, 2011 [37] Evaluation of existing score* ? ? ?
Oygur,2012 [38] Evaluation of existing score* + ? ?
Shah et al., 2015 [32] Development of new score + ? ?
Wu, 2015 [39] Evaluation of existing score* + ? ?
  1. + Limitation present (based on CHARMS criteria)
  2. - No limitation
  3. ? Not reported
  4. * None of these applied a regression formula from the original score development study to the new population but instead specified new models thus were model re-development rather than external validation studies
  5. † Limitation present if (based on CHARMS criteria) either score discrimination OR calibration only was reported
  6. ‡ Internal validation (to quantify model overfitting) OR external validation (model performance in new population)
  7. § Presentation of final model as either a regression formula or a score chart