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Table 1 Matrix of economic factors at local, national and international level

From: The macro-economic determinants of health and health inequalities—umbrella review protocol

  Local level National International Illustrative example of impact on health (if known)
Category 1: market regulation   Competition including legislation, consideration of externalities in pricing, fiscal measures, e.g. tax, market structure Trade policy Regulation of the tobacco market, via taxation and restrictions on advertisement and right to trade with tobacco has been associated with a range of benefits such as reduced heart disease [25]
Category 2: institutions   Central bank, banks, micro-finance, mortgages, startups. Legislation and regulation of organisations International organisations, e.g. International Monetary Fund, World Bank, multinational firms, World Trade Organisation Loans issued by the IMF and subsequent tuberculosis mortality [26]
Category 3: supply of money, finance and loans Local currencies, debt Interest rates, inflation, deflation, wages, supply of money or credit, macro-economic policy, fiscal policy, financial crises, monetary policy, structural adjustment policies, natural resources International lending, foreign aid, financial transactions tax, capital controls Financial crises and suicide rates [27]
Category 4: balance between public, private and third sector Land tenure
Informal economies, shadow economies, social enterprises and cooperatives
Structure and scope of government, privatization and nationalization, taxation, tax avoidance, government expenditure and welfare provision, property rights   Mass privatization and mortality in the former Soviet Union [28]
Category 5: labour Firm governance, structure, ownership, behavior, Trade unions, employment, unemployment, minimum wage, labor force size and structure   Unemployment and suicide [29]
Overwork and stroke [30]
Category 6: production and consumption Income, wealth, distribution Industrialisation, economic growth and aggregate productivity   Income inequality and mortality [31]
Category 7: approaches to economy Regional economics Capitalist, socialist, transitional, Keynesian, Marxian, neoclassical, ecological economics   Political traditions more committed to redistributive economic policies may lead to improvements in the health of populations [32]
  1. Some factors could be in multiple categories. They have been assigned to the most relevant category