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Table 1 Extracted data included studies

From: Reliability of measurements of the fractured clavicle: a systematic review

Author Number of patients Goal of study Modality Measurements Observers (role)/occasions Statistics Conclusion
Jones (2014) 18 30 Reliability
Shortening in mm
Displacement in %
Comminuted Y/N
Surgery Y/N
X-ray AP 30° caudo-cranial Calibrated measuring tool 13 (13 surgeons)
2 (after 4 months)
Power analysis + intraobserver shortening 0.38
Interobserver shortening 0.33
K values stated
Strong inter- and intraobserver agreement for displacement and comminution
Weak to no interobserver and minimal intraobserver agreement for shortening
Silva (2013) 19 32 Interobserver and intraobserver reliability shortening in MSCF in adolescents (9–18) X-ray 15° caudo-cranial AP 1. Observers’ method of choice 7 (3 pediatric orthopedic surgeons, 1 pediatric orthopedic fellow, 2 orthopedic residents, 1 medical student)
2 (1 week)
1. Interrater reliability 0.771 and 0.743
Intrarater reliability 2.62
Standardized method of measuring not better than method of choice
2. Standardized method
Digital measurement system
2. Interrater reliability 0.741 and 0.685
Intrarater reliability 3.34
Interrater no significant difference
Intrarater significant difference
Smekal (2008) 20 30 Assess different measuring methods and determine the most accurate method compared to CT X-ray PA thorax
15° caudo-cranial AP of both clavicles
15° caudo-cranial AP clavicle CT
Standardized methods as described in article 4 (3 orthopedic surgeons, 1 radiologist)
2 (after 1 month)
Determination of differences of mean values: paired t test or nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test Differences among measurements on X-ray and CT not significant
Repeatability coefficient on AP 15
Clavicle and clinical measurement low
Distribution from:
Kolmogorov-Smirnov test
Also smallest agreement with CT
Repeatability: RC according to Bland-Altman
A p < 0.05
PA thorax to determine length differences
Archer (2016) 21 22 Identify correlation between plain film and computed tomography (CT) measurement of displacement and the inter- and intraobserver reliability of repeated radiographic measurements X-ray AP plain film CT No standardized method of measurement 6 (3 orthopedic surgeons 3 residents) Correlation using the Bland-Altman reliability coefficient
Limits of agreement using the standard deviation (SD): 3.48 reliability using the Cronbach α coefficient. 0.90
Intraobserver reliability using paired t tests for each observer: all but one > 0.05
Plain film measurements of acute MSCF do not reliably predict shortening