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Table 2 The Vaughan Williams classification

From: The effects of rhythm control strategies versus rate control strategies for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter: a protocol for a systematic review with meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis

Class Mechanism Examples
Ia Na+ channel block (moderate) •Quinidine
•Ajmaline
•Procainamide
•Disopyramide
Ib Na+ channel block (weak) •Lidocaine
•Phenytoin
•Mexiletine
•Tocainide
Ic Na+ channel block (strong) •Flecainide
•Propafenone
•Encainide
•Moricizine
II Beta-blocker •Propranolol
•Carvedilol
•Esmolol
•Timolol
•Metoprolol
•Atenolol
•Bisoprolol
•Nebivolol
III K+ channel blocker •Amiodarone
•Dronedarone
•Sotalol
•Ibutilide
•Dofetilide
•Vernakalant
IV Ca2+ channel blocker •Verapamil
•Diltiazem
V Variable •Adenosine
•Digoxin
•Magnesium sulphate