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Table 1 Characteristics of included trials

From: Are we failing young people not in employment, education or training (NEETs)? A systematic review and meta-analysis of re-engagement interventions

ID Authors Date Design Intervention Control Participant characteristics Sample size Outcomes measured Effect size (d)
1 Alzua, Cruces, & Lopez-Erazo [30] 2013 Exp Entra21
Classroom
Internship
Basic skills
884 h
No contact Argentinian
Below poverty line
Unemployed
18–30
\( \overline{x}\ \mathrm{age} \) = 23.55 (I), 23.80 (C)
33% male
407 randomised.
407 analysed.
Employment status
Receipt of welfare
Credit standing
N credit enquiries
.154


2 Attanasio, Kugler, & Meghir [29] 2011 Exp Jóvenes en Acción
Classroom
On-the-job
6 months, 5 h per day
Wait-list Columbian
Unemployed
Lowest deciles of income distribution/Poor youth in urban areas
\( \overline{x}\ \mathrm{age} \) = 21.1 (I), 21.22 (C)
44.4%male
4353 randomised
3549 analysed.
Employment status
Earnings
 
3 Bloom, Orr, Cave, Bell, & Doolittle [33] 1993 Exp JTPA II-A
Classroom
On-the-job
Other services
3–5 months
Some received classroom training only. USA
Economically disadvantaged, facing barriers to employment.
45% male
\( \overline{x}\ \mathrm{age} \) = 19
4793 randomised.
4048 analysed.
Employment status
Earnings
Achieved HSD or GED
 
4 Borland, Tseng, & Wilkins [31] 2013 Exp YP4
Case management
23 meetings, 2 years
Standard service delivery Australian
Homeless (or history of homelessness/disadvantage) job seekers
18–35
\( \overline{x}\ \mathrm{age} \) = 23.34 (I), 22.92 (C)
445 recruited.
208-355 analysed.
Employment status N days income support
Receipt of welfare
DEEWR programme expenditure Health and Wellbeing Community activities Housing
 
5 Borland, & Tseng [34] 2007 Quasi Job seekers diary
Work search verification
Fortnightly, 3 months
Standard service delivery Australian
18–24
54,923 analysed (whole sample). Receipt of welfare  
6 Card, Ibarrarán, Regalia, Rosas-Shady, & Soares [35] 2011 Exp Juventud y Empleo
Basic skills Internship
350 h
Not specified Dominican Republic
44.5% male
Lowest income members of working age population
5723 realised treatment group, 1623 realised control group. Employment status
Earnings
 
7 Cave, Bos, Doolittle & Toussaint [28] 1993 Exp Jobstart Basic skills
Occupational training
800 h, 6.6 months
400 hours, not Jobstart. USA
Economically disadvantaged
School drop-outs
Low skilled 17-21 53.5% male
2312 randomised.
1491 analysed.
Employment status
Earnings
Receipt of welfare
Receipt of education
Receipt of qualification
Pregnancy
Criminal activity
 
8 Chen [36] 2013 Exp Job Corps
Academic Vocational Social skills
8 months residential
Wait list (3 years) USA
Disadvantaged
Low income household
16–24
\( \overline{x}\ \mathrm{age} \) 18.42 (I), 18.38 (C)
15,386 analysed. Employment status
Earnings(weekly)
Receipt of welfare
 
9 Creed, Machin, & Hicks [37] 1996 Quasi Youth Conservation Corps Work experience
Classroom training
16 weeks
Wait list Australian
Unemployed >6 months
67% male (I), 52% (C)
\( \overline{x}\ \mathrm{age} \) = 18.76 (I), 18.71 (C)
245 randomised.
82 analysed.
Self-esteem
Psyc. distress
 
10 Creed, Machin, & Hicks [38] 1999 Quasi Unnamed
Work experience
6–12 months
Wait list Australian
54% male
\( \overline{x}\ \mathrm{age} \) = 19
Unemployed ≥12 months
Eligible for government sponsored programmes
65 randomised.
32 analysed at F3.
Psyc. distress
Self-esteem
 
11 Donovan, Oddy, Pardoe, & Ades [39] 1986 Quasi Youth Opportunity Programme Work experience6–12 months Did not access programme; unemployed. UK
\( \overline{x}\ \mathrm{age} \) = 15.93 at T1
65% male
81 analysed. Health status  
12 Stafford [40] 1982 Quasi Youth Opportunity Programme
Work experience
6–12 months
Did not access programme; unemployed. UK
16–18 54% male
133 analysed. Health (GHQ)  
13 Mounsey [41] 2002 Quasi Youth training scheme
Further education
Placements
On-the-job
Duration not stated
No treatment; matched. UK
16–17 at T1
Varied by analysis: 972 to 8885. NEET status
Expected earnings and reservation wages
 
14 Nafilyan, & Speckesser [42] 2014 Quasi Youth Contract
Individually tailored support
12 months est.
Matched (counterfactual); same educational attainment and probability of receiving intervention. UK
16–18
11,144 received intervention. NEET status  
15 Schochet, McConnell, & Burghardt [43] 2003 Exp Job Corps
Educational
Vocational
Counselling
Placements
8 months residential
Other services; not Job Corps. USA
Disadvantaged—living in a household that receives welfare or is below the poverty line, and living in an environment that impairs prospects for participating in other programmes. Free of serious behavioural and medical problems. 60% males>70% members of racial or ethnic minoritygroups 16–24
15, 406 randomised.
11,313 analysed.
Employment status
Earnings
 
16 Schochet, Burghardt, & Glazerman [44] 2001 Exp Job Corps
Educational
Vocational
Counselling
Placements
8 months residential
Other services; not Job Corps. As trial 15 15, 406 randomised.
11,313 analysed.
Employment status
Earnings
Receipt of welfare
Receipt of education
Health status
Criminal activity
 
17 Tanner, Purdon, D’Souza, & Finch [32] 2009 Quasi Activity Agreement pilots
One-to-one support
Individually tailored contract
Financial incentives
15 weeks
Standard service delivery; matched from non-participating areas. England
58% males
16–17
NEET for >20 weeks
Not receiving JSA.
1018 analysed at F1, 229 analysed at F2. Education and employment
Confidence and independence
 
18 Grace & Gill [45] 2014 Quasi YP4
Case management
23 meetings, 2 years
Standard service delivery Australian
Homeless (or history of homelessness/disadvantage) Job seekers
18–35
422 assigned, 370 analysed. Earnings
Welfare receipt
Housing