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Table 2 Significant differencesa between treatments of lupus nephritis for a composite end-point of renal remission or renal response (includes partial remission, complete remission and renal response)

From: Comparative effectiveness of immunosuppressive drugs and corticosteroids for lupus nephritis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Treatment Reference Odds ratio (95 % CrI) Relative risk (95 % CrI) Risk difference % (95 % Crl)
CYC PRED 2.35 (1.28, 4.23) 1.60 (1.60, 2.24) 0.21 (0.06, 0.34)
MMF   3.26 (1.57, 6.72) 1.82 (1.82, 2.60) 0.28 (0.11, 0.44)
TAC   2.51 (1.11, 5.76) 1.64 (1.64, 2.44) 0.22 (0.03, 0.41)
CSA   5.69 (2.02, 17.61) 2.15 (2.15, 3.18) 0.40 (0.17, 0.58)
CYC LD CYC 0.32 (0.10, 0.89) 0.51 (0.51, 0.95) −0.26 (−0.45, −0.03)
CYC LD MMF 0.23 (0.08, 0.61) 0.45 (0.45, 0.81) −0.34 (−0.53, −0.12)
CYC HD   0.40 (0.20, 0.74) 0.65 (0.65, 0.89) −0.22 (−0.38, −0.07)
CSA AZA 3.20 (1.04, 10.19) 1.53 (1.53, 2.39) 0.26 (0.01, 0.47)
CYC LD TAC 0.30 (0.09, 0.91) 0.50 (0.50, 0.95) −0.28 (−0.50, −0.02)
PLASMA CSA 0.19 (0.04, 0.92) 0.49 (0.49, 0.97) −0.38 (−0.66, −0.02)
CYC LD   0.13 (0.03, 0.52) 0.38 (0.38, 0.76) −0.45 (−0.69, −0.15)
CYC HD   0.23 (0.06, 0.72) 0.55 (0.55, 0.87) −0.33 (−0.57, −0.08)
CYC HD   0.23 (0.06, 0.72) 0.55 (0.55, 0.87) −0.33 (−0.57, −0.08)
Random-effects model Residual deviance   82.2 vs. 77 data points  
  Deviance information criteria   389.332  
Fixed-effects model Residual Deviance   88.8 vs. 77 data points  
  Deviance information criteria   390.488  
  1. Based on 37 RCTs with 2697 patients: 35 two-arm trials and three three-arm trials
  2. aFor all comparisons of treatments of lupus nephritis for renal remission/response please see Appendix 5
  3. For absolute rates for events used for calculation of risk difference, please see Appendix 6
  4. OR odds ratio, RR relative risk, RD risk difference, CrI credible interval, CYC cyclophosphamide, MMF mycophenolate mofetil, CSA cyclosporine, TAC tacrolimus, LEF leflunomide, PRED prednisone, prednisolone or methylprednisolone, AZA azathioprine, RTX rituximab, HD high dose, LD low dose, when not specified, it indicates standard dose
  5. Significant odds ratios are in italics
  6. The odds ratios were transformed to relative risk (RR) and risk difference was done to allow ease for interpretation for clinicians and patients