Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary table for accepted studies—gastrointestinal system

From: Use of ward closure to control outbreaks among hospitalized patients in acute care settings: a systematic review

  Setting (beds); country Definition of ward closure (length) Other measures Inpatient outcomes (includes index case(s))a Controlled (Y, N, NA) Due tob
Clostridium difficile
Cherifi et al. [28] 4 geriatric wards (97 total) at a teaching hospital (758); Belgium No new admissions; no transfers (10d) 8 21/92 in total: 11 (52 %) died; 6 (29 %) relapsed Y All
Hastie et al. [23] Urological ward; England No new admissions (1m) 5 17/42 in total: all infected; 4 (24 %) relapsed NA Multiple
Ratnayake et al. [25] Vascular acute surgery ward (24); Scotland No new admissions (2w) 7 9 in total: 2 (22 %) died Y All
Norovirus
Fretz et al. [22] Internal medicine, intensive care, surgery, and orthopedics departments at a general hospital (176); Austria No new admissions (3 occasions: 11d, 9d, 9d) 3 56 in total NA All
Hoffmann et al. [36] 34 wards at a teaching hospital; Germany Limited transfers (6d) 3 116 in total Y NA
Kanerva et al. [34] 23 wards at a tertiary hospital (504); Finland No new admissions; limited transfers 5 240 in total: 181 (75 %) positive; 9 (4 %) died NA Multiple
McCall and Smithson [31] Acute elderly care ward; Ireland No new admissions; no transfers; limited discharges (3d) 9 20 in total: 6 (30 %) positive, 14 (70 %) assumed Y All
Russo et al. [35] 3 extended care (30 each), acute care (37) wards at an elderly extended care facility (380); Australia No new admissions; limited discharges; (2 occasions: 22d, 13d) 10 58 in total N: seemed to limit the outbreak Uncertain
Stevenson et al. [32] 11 wards at a geriatric hospital (300); England Stage 1: unspecified closure Stage 1: 4
Stage 2: 3
Stage 3: 1
95 in total N: outbreak declared over but new cases All
Stage 2: no new admissions; no transfers; limited discharges (12d)
Weber et al. [26] Pediatric psychiatric unit (10) at a teaching hospital; USA No new admissions (9d) 6 3/4 in total Y All
Zingg et al. [30] 2 internal medicine wards at a tertiary hospital (960); Switzerland No new admissions; no transfers 6 16/115 in total: 12 (75 %) positive, 3 (19 %) assumed, 1 (6 %) symptomatic N: reduced number of new cases All
Rotavirus
Clark et al. [21] Infectious disease (10) and general infant (16) wards; England No new admissions (5d) 3 20 in total Y All
Srinivasan et al. [37] Neonatal unit; USA Unspecified closure of transitional nursery 5 23/28 in total: 5 (22 %) positive; 18 infected (78 %) Y Multiple
Widdowson et al. [27] Neonatal medium care unit (15), and pediatric and maternity wards at a general hospital; The Netherlands Closure 1: no new admissions and discharge of all cases Wave 1: 2
Wave 2: 5
End of outbreak: 2
56/358 in total Y: relapse after 2w Multiple
Closure 2: no admissions and emptied of all patients (2 closures: 3d, 7d)
Salmonella panama
Kienitz et al. [24] Pediatric ward in a specialty hospital; Germany No new admissions 3 16 in total N: new cases after closure NA
Small round structured virus
Green et al. [29] Wards and a day hospital at a mentally infirm hospital; England No new admissions; no transfers (17d) 5 13/21 in total N: new cases after measures NA
Small round structured virus and small round featureless virus
Cunney et al. [33] Geriatric, general, and neighboring wards; Ireland No new admissions; limited transfers (15d) 5 47 in total: 1 (2 %) died Y All
  1. d days, w weeks, m months, y years
  2. aIncludes deaths directly, indirectly, and attributable to infection
  3. bMultiple includes ward closure