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Table 1 How systematic reviews can inform different steps in policy-making processes (adapted from Lavis 2009) [5]

From: Advancing the field of health systems research synthesis

Steps in policy-making Policy question Types of systematic reviews
Clarifying the problem and its causes Need for intervention: what is the nature, magnitude and appropriate framing of the problem? Reviews of observational and qualitative studies
Assessing potential policy and programmatic options What is the appropriate set of options to address the problem and what are the effects, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of these options? Reviews of effectiveness studies, economic evaluations, studies of views and experiences, process evaluations
Identifying What are the potential barriers to the successful implementation of the options and potential windows of opportunity? All of the above