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Table 2 CHEERS statement for checking the validity of included studies [22]

From: Assessing cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccines with decision analytic models: what are the distinct challenges of low- and middle-income countries? A protocol for a systematic review

Selection/item Item no. Recommendation
Title and abstract
 Title 1 Identify the study as an economic evaluation, or use more specific terms such as “cost-effectiveness analysis” and describe the interventions compared.
 Abstract 2 Provide a structured summary of objectives, perspective, setting, methods (including study design and inputs), results (including base-case and uncertainty analyses), and conclusions.
Introduction
 Background and objectives 3 Provide an explicit statement of the broader context for the study. Present the study question and its relevance for health policy or practice decisions.
Methods
 Target population and subgroups 4 Describe characteristics of the base-case population and subgroups analyzed including why they were chosen.
 Setting and location 5 State relevant aspects of the system(s) in which the decision(s) need(s) to be made.
 Study perspective 6 Describe the perspective of the study and relate this to the costs being evaluated.
 Comparators 7 Describe the interventions or strategies being compared and state why they were chosen.
 Time horizon 8 State the time horizon(s) over which costs and consequences are being evaluated and say why appropriate.
 Discount rate 9 Report the choice of discount rate(s) used for costs and outcomes and say why appropriate.
 Choice of health outcomes 10 Describe what outcomes were used as the measure(s) of benefit in the evaluation and their relevance for the type of analysis performed.
 Measurement of effectiveness 11a Single study-based estimates: describe fully the design features of the single effectiveness study and why the single study was a sufficient source of clinical effectiveness data.
11b Synthesis-based estimates: describe fully the methods used for the identification of included studies and synthesis of clinical effectiveness data.
 Measurement and valuation of preference-based outcomes 12 If applicable, describe the population and methods used to elicit preference outcomes.
 Estimating resources and costs 13a Single study-based economic evaluation: describe approaches used to estimate resource use associated with the alternative interventions. Describe primary or secondary research methods for valuing each resource item in terms of its unit cost. Describe any adjustments made to approximate to opportunity costs.
  13b Model-based economic evaluation: describe approaches and data sources used to estimate resource use associated with model health states. Describe primary or secondary research methods for valuing each resource item in terms of its unit cost. Describe any adjustments made to approximate to opportunity costs.
 Currency, price date, and conversion 14 Report the dates of the estimated resource quantities and unit costs. Describe methods for adjusting estimated unit costs to the year of reported costs if necessary. Describe methods for converting costs into a common currency base and the exchange rate.
 Choice of mode 15 Describe and give reasons for the specific type of decision analytic model used. Providing a figure to show model structure is strongly recommended.
 Assumptions 16 Describe all structural or other assumptions underpinning the decision analytic model.
 Analytic methods 17 Describe all analytic methods supporting the evaluation. This could include methods for dealing with skewed, missing, or censored data; extrapolation methods; methods for pooling data; approaches to validate or make adjustments (e.g., half-cycle corrections) to a model; and methods for handling population heterogeneity and uncertainty.
Results   
 Study parameters 18 Report the values, ranges, references, and, if used, probability distributions for all parameters. Report reasons or sources for distributions used to represent uncertainty where appropriate. Providing a table to show the input values is strongly recommended.
 Incremental costs and outcomes 19 For each intervention, report mean values for the main categories of estimated costs and outcomes of interest, as well as mean differences between the comparator groups. If applicable, report incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.
 Characterizing uncertainty 20a Single study-based economic evaluation: describe the effects of sampling uncertainty for estimated incremental cost, incremental effectiveness, and incremental cost-effectiveness, together with the impact of methodological assumptions (such as discount rate, study perspective).
  20b Model-based economic evaluation: describe the effects on the results of uncertainty for all input parameters and uncertainty related to the structure of the model and assumptions
Discussion
 Study findings, limitations, generalizability, and current knowledge 22 Summarize key study findings and describe how they support the conclusion reached. Discuss limitation and the generalizability of the findings and how the findings fit with current knowledge.
Others
 Source of funding 23 Describe how the study was funded and the role of the funder in the identification, design, conduct, and reporting of the analysis. Describe other non-monetary sources of support.
 Conflicts of interest 24 Describe any potential for conflict of interest among study contributors in accordance with journal policy. In the absence of a journal policy, we recommend authors comply with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ recommendations.