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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: The effectiveness of computerized order entry at reducing preventable adverse drug events and medication errors in hospital settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Country Number of hospitals (bed size) Financial status Type of hospital Setting in hospital Baseline error rate, %a Developer of CPOE system Use of CPOE CDSSb Study design Event detection methodsc
Bizovi et al., 2002 [49] USA 1 (560) Public Academic ED 3.6 (visits) Commercial (EmSTAT; CyberPlus) Mandatory Noned Pre/post Routine pharmacist review of medication orders
Franklin et al., 2009 [5052] UK 1 (-) (Probably public) Academic General surgery ward 64.9 Commercial (ServeRx V.1:13; MDG Medical) Mandatory None Pre/post Routine pharmacist review of medication orders, medical record review, and incident reporting
Shawahna et al., 2011 [53] Pakistan 1 (1280) Public Academic 2 medical wards 83.8 Homegrown Mandatory None Pre/post Medical record review (R)
Shulman et al., 2005 [54] UK 1 (-) Public Academic General ICU 41.1 Commercial (QS 5.6 Clinical Information System; GE Healthcare) Not stated None Pre/post Routine pharmacist review of medication orders
Leung et al., 2012 [11] USA 6 (100 to 300 each) Community Hospital-wide 42.3 Commercial (not stated) Not stated Present Pre/post Medical record and order review (B, R)
Wess et al., 2007 [55],[56] USA 2 (665 and 555) Private Academic, Community General surgery, Orthopedic/neurosurgical units Commercial (LastWord®; GE, formerly IDX) Mandatory (n = 1) and voluntary (n = 1) Present Pre/post Routine pharmacist review of medication orders, with changes signed by MD
Taylor et al., 2002 [57]e USA 3 (1000 in total) Private Academic Hospital-wide Not stated Not stated Present Pre/post Quarterly review of subset of medication orders
Barron et al., 2006 [58] USA 1 (525) Private Academic Hospital-wide 10.4 Homegrown Mandatory Basic Pre/post Routine pharmacist review of medication orders
Bates et al., 1998 [59] USA 1 (726) Private Academic 2 medical and 2 surgical wards, 2 ICUs 4.9 Homegrown Mandatory Basic Pre/post Medical record review and other means (B, R)
Van Doormal et al., 2009 [60] The Nether-lands 2 (1300 and 600) Academic 2 medical wards at each hospital 99.9 Commercial (Medicator®; iSoft), Partly Homegrown (Theriak®), Mandatory Basic Pre/post Medical record and order review
Westbrook et al., 2012 [61] Australia 2 (400 and 326) Academic 4 medical wards at one hospital; 1 cardiology and 1 psychiatry unit at the other hospital 99.7 Commercial (Millenium Power Orders; Cerner and MedChart; iSoft) Exceptions allowed Basic Differences in differences Routine pharmacist review of medication orders (R)
Weant et al., 2007 [62]e USA 1 (489) Public Academic Neurosurgical ICU Not stated Not stated Moderated Pre/post Routine pharmacist review of medication orders, incident reporting
Bates et al., 1999 [63] USA 1 (700) Private Academic 2 medical wards and 1 ICU 47.3 Homegrown Mandatory Moderate Pre/post Medical record and order review plus other means
Colpaert et al., 2006 [64] Belgium 1 (-) Academic 3 units within a surgical ICU 98.0 Commercial (Centricity Critical Care Clinisoft; GE Healthcare Europe) Mandatory Moderate Comparison of similar units Routine pharmacist review of medication orders (B)
Mahoney et al., 2007 [65] USA 2 (247 and 719) Private Academic Hospital-wide Commercial (Siemens Medical Solutions CPOE; Siemens Medical Solutions Health Services Corp) Exceptions allowed Moderate Pre/post Routine pharmacist review of medication orders, with changes accepted by MD; incident reporting
Oliven et al., 2005 [66] Israel 1 (450) Public Academic Pulmonary service 62.1 Homegrown Not stated Moderate Compare similar units Medical record and order review
Igboechi et al., 2003 [67]e USA 1 (350) Private Community Hospital-wide Commercial (Ulticare System Database; Per Se Technologies Mandatory Moderate Pre/post Routine pharmacist review of medication orders
Aronsky et al., 2007 [68, 69] USA 1 (658) Private Academic ED 99.8 (visits) Homegrown (WizOrder, later commercial-ized as Horizon Expert Orders; McKesson) Not stated Advancedd Pre/post Routine pharmacist review of medication orders
Mendendez et al., 2012 [70] Spain 1 (200) Academic Hospital-wide 5.0 Commercial (Selene; Siemens) Not stated Advanced d Pre/post Trigger tool medical record review, incident reporting, and other means
  1. CDSS, Clinical Decision Support Systems; CPOE, computerized provider order entry; ED, emergency department; ICU, intensive care unit.
  2. aPercentage of hospitalizations (or emergency department visits, where noted).
  3. bNone = no clinical decision support system; basic = checks for drug-allergy and drug-drug interaction; moderate = basic plus at least one additional clinical decision support function; advanced = moderate plus additional capabilities [71].
  4. cT = paper described training of reviewers; B = paper described blinding of reviewers to baseline versus CPOE conditions; R = Paper described methods for assessing reviewer reliability. If none of symbols appear, these were not described.
  5. dInformation on CDSS obtained by contacting authors.
  6. eOmitted from pooled effect calculations due to lack of data related to estimating variance.