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Table 3 Features and measurements of acute lung injury in animal models

From: Efficacy and safety of mesenchymal stromal cells in preclinical models of acute lung injury: a systematic review protocol

Feature ‘Very relevant’ measurements
Histological evidence of tissue injury Accumulation of neutrophils in the alveolar or the interstitial space
Formation of hyaline membranes
Presence of proteinaceous debris in the alveolar space (such as fibrin strands)
Thickening of the alveolar wall
Enhanced injury as measured by a standardized histology score
Alteration of the alveolar capillary barrier An increase in extravascular lung water content
Accumulation of an exogenous protein or tracer in the airspaces or the extravascular compartment
Increase in total bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein concentration
Increase in concentration of high molecular weight proteins in BAL fluid (for example albumin, IgM)
Increase in the microvascular filtration coefficient
Inflammatory response Increase in the absolute number of neutrophils in BAL fluid
Increase in lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity or protein concentration
Increase in the concentrations of cytokines in lung tissue or BAL fluid (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand2, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, IL-8, IL-10, prostaglandin E2, IL-1 receptor antagonist)
Physiological dysfunction Hypoxemia
Increased alveolar-oxygen difference