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Table 1 Description of included studies

From: The effect of moderate gestational alcohol consumption during pregnancy on speech and language outcomes in children: a systematic review

Study: study design N Setting Outcome measure: tool used Age outcome recorded Definition of alcohol exposure Exposure ascertainment Confounders included Analyses and measures of effect
O’Leary et al. 2009 [30]: Cohort study 1,739 Western Australia Communication delay: Communication scale from Ages and Stages Questionnaire Two years Low = 20 g or less per occasion less than weekly or less than daily Measured three months after birth for four periods: three months pre-pregnancy and each trimester separately by mail survey Maternal age, parity, marital status, smoking for each trimester, illicit drug use, depression, anxiety and stress, family factors (antenatal income, presence of partner in household, parenting ability, family functioning) Odds of language delay by severity of alcohol consumption for each trimester individually
Faden and Graubard 2000 [29]: Cohort study 13,417 USA Communication development: Seven-item language measure of the Denver Developmental Scale Three years Mean alcoholic drinks per day during pregnancy After delivery via a mail survey None Mean number of drinks per day for each level of language scale (1 to 7)
Greene et al. 1990 [31]: Cohort study 618 Cleveland Metropolitan Hospital, USA Communication development: SICD (Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development) One, two and three years Absolute alcohol per day = average number of ounces of alcohol per day reported to have been consumed over all sampled days throughout pregnancy During pregnancy upon attendance at a clinic Sex, race, parental education, maternal age, reported usage if street drugs, the day of first antenatal visit, the HOME score, the precise age at testing, the ratings of psychosocial stress and medical problems, maternal IQ Mean SICD measures adjusted for covariates at selected alcohol levels per day