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  1. Of the more than 104,000 Canadians who underwent elective total joint arthroplasty (TJA) surgery in 2012–2013 for hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA), 40 and 60 %, respectively, were obese. Obesity is associated ...

    Authors: Michelle Lui, C. Allyson Jones and Marie D. Westby
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:121
  2. The demand for accelerated forms of evidence synthesis is on the rise, largely in response to requests by health care decision makers for expeditious assessment and up-to-date information about health care tec...

    Authors: Julie Polisena, Chantelle Garritty, Craig A. Umscheid, Chris Kamel, Kevin Samra, Jeannette Smith and Ann Vosilla
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:137
  3. Africa is considered an area of high endemicity for hepatitis A virus infection. However, in the past two decades, tremendous progress has been made in improving water sources and sanitation which are risk fac...

    Authors: Tiwonge J. Kanyenda, Leila H. Abdullahi, Gregory D. Hussey and Benjamin M. Kagina
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:129
  4. Many systematic reviews have evaluated the effectiveness of interventions to prevent, delay, or decrease frailty symptoms, but no effort has been made to identify, map, and synthesize the findings from reviews...

    Authors: Michael G. Wilson, François Béland, Dominic Julien, Lise Gauvin, G. Emmanuel Guindon, Denis Roy, Kaitryn Campbell, Donna G. Comeau, Heather Davidson, Parminder Raina, Deborah Sattler and Brenda Vrkljan
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:128
  5. Inhaled steroids have been studied for both prevention and treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Results have been inconsistent. Recently, a large randomized controlled trial (RCT) has been reported.

    Authors: Eric S. Shinwell, Igor Portnov, Joerg Meerpohl, Tanja Karen and Dirk Bassler
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:127
  6. Specialist palliative care (SPC) interventions aim to relieve and prevent suffering in the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual domain. Therefore, SPC is carried out by a multi-professional team with...

    Authors: Jan Gaertner, Waldemar Siemens, Gerd Antes, Joerg J Meerpohl, Carola Xander, Guido Schwarzer, Stephanie Stock and Gerhild Becker
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:123
  7. One of the most efficient radiation protection methods to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes in case of accidental radioactive iodine release is the administration of potassium iodine (KI). Although KI...

    Authors: Steffen Dreger, Manuela Pfinder, Lara Christianson, Stefan K Lhachimi and Hajo Zeeb
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:126
  8. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is an accurate test commonly used to determine whether thyroid nodules are malignant in adults. However, less is known about its diagnostic accuracy for this purpose in chi...

    Authors: Sarah W. Lai, Derek J. Roberts, Doreen M. Rabi and Karin Y. Winston
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:120
  9. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrine disease that is seen among adolescent women. Currently, there is limited evidence to support treatment options leading to considerable vari...

    Authors: Reem A. Al Khalifah, Iván D. Flórez, Brittany Dennis, Binod Neupane, Lehana Thabane and Ereny Bassilious
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:125
  10. Systematic reviews of interventions provide a summary of the evidence available on intervention effectiveness and harm. Cochrane systematic reviews (CSRs) have been published electronically in the Cochrane Dat...

    Authors: Xue Wang, Barbara S. Hawkins and Kay Dickersin
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:118
  11. Breast and prostate cancers are the most commonly diagnosed non-dermatologic malignancies in Canada. Agents including endocrine therapies (e.g., aromatase inhibitors, gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogs, a...

    Authors: Brian Hutton, Fatemeh Yazdi, Louise Bordeleau, Scott Morgan, Chris Cameron, Salmaan Kanji, Dean Fergusson, Andrea Tricco, Sharon Straus, Becky Skidmore, Mona Hersi, Misty Pratt, Sasha Mazzarello, Melissa Brouwers, David Moher and Mark Clemons
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:114
  12. Health care professionals (HCPs) are able to make effective decisions regarding patient care through the use of systematically developed clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). These recommendations are especiall...

    Authors: Jennifer R. Tomasone, Rushil Chaudhary and Melissa C. Brouwers
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:113
  13. Women in sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by high rates of HIV, yet relatively few products exist for female-initiated HIV prevention. New antiretroviral (ARV)-based prevention options could ...

    Authors: Robyn Eakle, Caitlin Jarrett, Adam Bourne, Jonathan Stadler and Heidi Larson
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:111
  14. Universities, public institutions, and the transfer of knowledge to the private sector play a major role in the development of medical technologies. The decisions of universities and public institutions regard...

    Authors: Rosa Jahn, Olaf Müller and Kayvan Bozorgmehr
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:110
  15. Large numbers of people provide carer roles for survivors of stroke. Person-centred stroke rehabilitation must consider the perspectives of carers, as stroke affects not only the stroke survivor but also the q...

    Authors: Julie A. Luker, Susanne Bernhardsson, Elizabeth Lynch, Carolyn Murray, Olivia P. Hill and Julie Bernhardt
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:108
  16. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a technique that can be used to assess corticospinal plasticity. Current TMS practices involve the administration of multiple stimuli over target areas of the partici...

    Authors: Rocco Cavaleri, Siobhan M. Schabrun and Lucy S. Chipchase
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:107
  17. Tracheostomy is one of the most frequently performed procedures in intensive care medicine. The two main approaches to form a tracheostoma are the open surgical tracheotomy (ST) and the interventional strategy...

    Authors: Rosa Klotz, Ulla Klaiber, Kathrin Grummich, Pascal Probst, Markus K. Diener, Markus W. Büchler and Phillip Knebel
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:105
  18. Biased processing of body-related information may be linked to the development and maintenance of eating disorders (ED). The objective of this systematic review will be to examine the occurrence and the extent...

    Authors: Kathrin Schuck, Simone Munsch and Silvia Schneider
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:103
  19. Renal replacement therapy is increasingly utilized in the intensive care unit (ICU), of which continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is most common. Despite CRRT being a relatively resource-intensive and ...

    Authors: Oleksa Rewa, Pierre-Marc Villeneuve, Dean T. Eurich, Henry T Stelfox, RT Noel Gibney, Lisa Hartling, Robin Featherstone and Sean M Bagshaw
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:102
  20. Authors: Anneloes E. Ruifrok, Ewelina Rogozinska, Mireille N. M. van Poppel, Girish Rayanagoudar, Sally Kerry, Christianne J. M. de Groot, SeonAe Yeo, Emma Molyneaux, Ruben Barakat Carballo, Maria Perales, Annick Bogaerts, Jose G. Cecatti, Fernanda Surita, Jodie Dodd, Julie Owens, Nermeen El Beltagy…
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:101

    The original article was published in Systematic Reviews 2014 3:131

  21. Health system integration is a key component of health system reform with the goal of improving outcomes for patients, providers, and the health system. Although health systems continue to strive for better in...

    Authors: Nelly D. Oelke, Esther Suter, Maria Alice Dias da Silva Lima and Cheryl Van Vliet-Brown
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:99
  22. When potentially associated with the likelihood of outcome, missing participant data represents a serious potential source of bias in randomized trials. Authors of systematic reviews frequently face this probl...

    Authors: Elie A. Akl, Lara A. Kahale, Thomas Agoritsas, Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Jason W. Busse, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Shanil Ebrahim, Bradley C. Johnston, Ignacio Neumann, Ivan Sola, Xin Sun, Per Vandvik, Yuqing Zhang, Pablo Alonso-Coello and Gordon Guyatt
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:98
  23. Improving and sustaining the quality of hospital care is an international challenge. Patient experience data can be used to target improvement and research. However, the use of patient experience data has been...

    Authors: Michelle Beattie, Douglas J. Murphy, Iain Atherton and William Lauder
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:97
  24. No definite consensus has been established about the optimal pressure for artificial pneumoperitoneum when performing laparoscopic surgery. It has been postulated that lowering intra-peritoneal pressure levels...

    Authors: Esther B. Kyle, Sarah Maheux-Lacroix, Amélie Boutin and Madeleine Lemyre
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:96
  25. Most patients are discharged from an intensive care unit with an expectation that they will survive their hospital stay, yet these patients have high subsequent in-hospital mortality. Patients are frequently d...

    Authors: Sarah A. Vollam, Susan J. Dutton, Duncan Young and Peter J. Watkinson
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:93
  26. After being discharged from hospital following the acute management of a fragility fracture, older adults may re-present to hospital emergency departments in the post-discharge period. Early re-presentation to...

    Authors: Saira A. Mathew, Kristiann C. Heesch, Elise Gane and Steven M. McPhail
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:91
  27. Those planning, managing and working in health systems worldwide routinely need to make decisions regarding strategies to improve health care and promote equity. Systematic reviews of different kinds can be of...

    Authors: Etienne V. Langlois, Michael K. Ranson, Till Bärnighausen, Xavier Bosch-Capblanch, Karen Daniels, Fadi El-Jardali, Abdul Ghaffar, Jeremy Grimshaw, Andy Haines, John N. Lavis, Simon Lewin, Qingyue Meng, Sandy Oliver, Tomás Pantoja, Sharon Straus, Ian Shemilt…
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:90
  28. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) is generally thought to be a good source to search when conducting a review of qualitative evidence. Case studies have suggested that using...

    Authors: Kath Wright, Su Golder and Kate Lewis-Light
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:104

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Systematic Reviews 2015 4:169

  29. Increasing numbers of systematic reviews evaluating the diagnostic test accuracy of technologies are being published. Currently, review teams tend to apply conventional systematic review standards to identify ...

    Authors: Louise Preston, Christopher Carroll, Paolo Gardois, Suzy Paisley and Eva Kaltenthaler
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:82
  30. Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) is a predictable consequence of head and neck cancer and its treatment. Loss of the ability to eat and drink normally has a devastating impact on quality of life for surviv...

    Authors: Roganie Govender, Christina H Smith, Stuart A Taylor, Daphne Grey, Jane Wardle and Benjamin Gardner
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:89
  31. Once-daily low-dose aspirin is routinely used for the prevention of secondary events in cardiovascular disease (CVD). The routine use of aspirin in primary prevention of CVD is less clear due to a finer balanc...

    Authors: Danai Bem, Janine Dretzke, Simon Stevens, Marie Lordkipanidzé, James Hodgkinson, Sue Bayliss, David Moore and David Fitzmaurice
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:88
  32. Randomized controlled trials are the sine qua non of causal inference; however, heterogeneity of treatment effects for many chronic conditions and for many symptoms often limits their utility. Single-patient s...

    Authors: Jonathan A. Shaffer, Louis Falzon, Ken Cheung and Karina W. Davidson
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:87
  33. Spasticity in the upper limb is common after acquired brain impairment and may have a significant impact on the ability to perform meaningful daily activities. Traditionally, outcome measurement in spasticity ...

    Authors: Shannon Pike, Natasha Anne Lannin, Anne Cusick, Kylie Wales, Lynne Turner-Stokes and Stephen Ashford
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:86
  34. Selective reporting bias (SRB), the incomplete publication of outcomes measured or of analyses performed in a study, may lead to the over- or underestimation of treatment effects or harms. Cochrane systematic ...

    Authors: Emma K Reid, Aaron M Tejani, Lawrence N Huan, Gregory Egan, Cait O’Sullivan, Alain D Mayhew and Monisha Kabir
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:85
  35. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) refers to acute or chronic liver injury that may occur as a consequence of using drugs and herbal or dietary supplements. Specific therapies for DILI are limited. There is cons...

    Authors: Mohamed Farouk Chughlay, Nicole Kramer, Mahmoud Werfalli, Wendy Spearman, Mark Emmanuel Engel and Karen Cohen
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:84
  36. Thoracic surgical procedures impair respiratory function, decreasing ventilation and oxygenation and increasing the risk of acute respiratory failure and pulmonary complications. To prevent these clinical repe...

    Authors: Elinaldo da Conceição dos Santos and Adriana Claudia Lunardi
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:83
  37. Self-management models can be a very powerful resource in the health system provided they are well tailored to a particular disease and setting. Patient outcomes have been demonstrated to improve when self-man...

    Authors: Edward Zimbudzi, Clement Lo, Marie Misso, Sanjeeva Ranasinha and Sophia Zoungas
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:81
  38. Child health and wellbeing is influenced by multiple factors, all of which can impact on early childhood development. Adverse early life experiences can have lasting effects across the life course, sustaining ...

    Authors: Emma Coles, Helen Cheyne and Brigid Daniel
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:79
  39. Acute cholecystitis is a common diagnosis. However, the heterogeneity of presentation makes it difficult to standardize management. Although surgery is the mainstay of treatment, critically ill patients have b...

    Authors: Peter C. Ambe, Sarantos Kaptanis, Marios Papadakis, Sebastian A. Weber and Hubert Zirngibl
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:77
  40. Magnesium plays a key role in maintaining internal homeostasis through actions in the musculoskeletal, nervous, endocrine and cellular messenger systems. Renal excretion is the major route of magnesium elimina...

    Authors: John Floridis, Asanga Abeyaratne and Sandawana William Majoni
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:76
  41. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) used in the health sector have well-known advantages. They can promote patient-centered healthcare, improve quality of care, and educate health professionals a...

    Authors: Geneviève Rouleau, Marie-Pierre Gagnon and José Côté
    Citation: Systematic Reviews 2015 4:75

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